Well, that ended November, and with it autumn – the time of leaf fall, rains and fruit and vegetable abundance.
We boldly enter winter, starting our “wintering” from the last month of the year and the first winter – snowy, cold December with frequent winds and frost. He got his name from the Greek “δέκα” and Latin , which means “tenth”, since it really had such a serial number according to the old Roman calendar, even before the reform of Caesar. People called December: jelly, winter, frown, chills, wind chimes, frost, fierce, lute, hawk, December.
December is rich in folk and Orthodox holidays, the beginning of the Nativity Fast and preparations for the New Year and Christmas celebrations.
When composing your winter diet, you must take into account the following important factors:
- in winter, it is necessary to maintain immunity;
- prevent dehydration of the body;
- ensure proper heat exchange;
- do not disturb the metabolism with an increased number of calories;
- some hormones in the human body are poorly produced (for example, due to a small amount of sunlight, melatonin is not produced).
Therefore, nutritionists recommend adhering to the principles of rational and seasonal nutrition in December and eating the following foods.
They belong to the evergreen fruit trees of the genus Citrus of the Rutaceae family, have different heights (from 4 to 12 m), differ in leathery, oval leaves, white bisexual single flowers or inflorescences. Orange fruit is a multi-celled berry with a light yellow or reddish orange color, sweet and sour juicy pulp.
An orange comes from Southeast Asia, but now it is grown in many countries with a tropical or subtropical climate (for example, in Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Krasnodar Territory, in the countries of Central Asia, Italy, Spain, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Japan, India, Pakistan, USA and Indonesia, in the south of France). The “sugar” oranges are Mosambi and Sukkari.
Orange fruits contain vitamin A, B2, PP, B1, C, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron.
Oranges have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-allergic and antiscorbutic properties. Therefore, they are recommended for anemia, anemia, loss of appetite, indigestion, lethargy and weakness, atherosclerosis, hypertension, liver disease, gout, obesity, scurvy, constipation. Regular consumption of oranges tones the body, has a rejuvenating effect, helps cleanse the blood, heals wounds and ulcers, and prevents the development of blood clots.
In cooking, oranges are used to make salads, sauces, cocktails, desserts, juice, ice cream, compotes, liqueurs and baked goods.
They belong to small (no more than 4 m) branched evergreen trees of the Rutovye family. They are distinguished by small lanceolate, leathery leaves and slightly flattened orange fruits with a diameter of 4-6 cm. It should be noted that the thin peel of the mandarin fruit loosely adheres to the pulp, which has a strong aroma and sweet-sour taste.
Mandarin native to Cochin and China, is now successfully cultivated in Algeria, Spain, southern France, Japan, Indochina, Turkey and Argentina.
The pulp of mandarin fruits contains organic acids, sugar, vitamin A, B4, K, D, riboflavin, thiamine, ascorbic acid, rutin, phytoncides, essential oils, carotene, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, calcium, sodium.
Mandarin is a valuable dietary product as it enhances metabolic and digestive processes, improves appetite, strengthens the body, has antimicrobial and antipyretic effects. And also it is recommended for dysentery and heavy menopausal bleeding.
In cooking, tangerines are used for fruit desserts and salads, pie fillings, cakes interlayers, making sauces, gravy and delicious tangerine jam.
It belongs to the terrestrial herbaceous plants of the Bromeliad family, it is distinguished by thorny leaves and stems, numerous adventitious roots that develop directly in the leaf axils. Pineapple seedlings are formed by accrete seedless fruits and a fleshy axis of the inflorescence.
Tropical America is considered the homeland of pineapple, but in the modern world it is widespread in many countries as a valuable industrial crop.
Pineapple pulp contains vitamins B1, B12, B2, PP, A, organic acids, dietary fiber, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, copper, iron, zinc, manganese, magnesium, bromelin enzyme, iodine.
The beneficial substances of pineapple lower blood pressure, stimulate digestion, thin the blood, dull the feeling of hunger, promote weight loss, increase the serotonin content in the blood, rejuvenate the body, and remove excess fluid from the body. They also prevent the development of atherosclerosis, vascular thrombosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. In addition, pineapple is used to treat bronchitis, arthritis, pneumonia, infectious diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system.
In cooking, pineapples are used to prepare desserts, salads, and meat dishes. But in the 19th century, they were served fermented and composed of cabbage soup to the table of some nobles.
It is a vigorous tree with a broadly oval or rounded crown, medium conical greenish-yellow fruits with a “rusty” mesh or a slight “blush”. Golden is distinguished by smooth, medium thickness skin and dense creamy fine-grained juicy pulp.
Golden is originally from East Virginia, where it was discovered as an “accidental” seedling in 1890. Now, more than a hundred years later, it is distributed in many regions of the world. It should be noted that for a long period of time this apple variety has been the sales leader in countries such as: Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, England, Italy, our country, Netherlands, Poland, Russia and others.
Apple Golden belongs to low-calorie fruits – 47 kcal / 100 grams and contains organic acids, sodium, fiber, potassium, iron, calcium, vitamin PP, B3, A, C, B1, magnesium, iodine, phosphorus. It is recommended to use it to normalize digestion, lower cholesterol levels, prevent atherosclerosis, maintain the immune system, cleanse and disinfect the body, strengthen the nervous system, and stimulate brain activity. And also for hypovitaminosis, diabetes mellitus and for the prevention of cancer.
In addition to being consumed raw, apples are pickled, salted, baked, dried, served with salads, desserts, sauces, main courses, drinks (including alcoholic ones).
This is the fruit of the coconut palm of the Palm family (Arecaceae), which is distinguished by a large round shape, a fleecy hard shell, a brown thin skin and white flesh. Malaysia is considered the homeland of the coconut palm, but thanks to the waterproofness of the fruit and the purposeful human activity of its cultivation, it is widely distributed in the countries of the tropical belt, and in Malacca, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, the Malay archipelago and in India it is specially grown on an industrial scale.
Coconut pulp contains potassium, many antioxidants and natural oils, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamins E and C, folate and fiber. Thanks to this, the use of coconut helps to restore strength, improves vision and digestion, enhances immunity, and prevents the development of oncological and cardiovascular diseases.
Coconut oil contains capric and lauric acid, which negatively affect pathogenic bacteria, microorganisms, fungi, yeast and viruses, and stimulate antimicrobial activity. It should be noted that this oil is easily absorbed and is not deposited in the body.
Coconut pulp is used in cooking to prepare fruit salads, soups, pies, main courses, and desserts.
It belongs to edible brown algae, differs in thallus with an even or wrinkled brown plate-leaf, which can reach a length of 20 meters. The distribution area of kelp is very wide – it grows in the Japanese, White, Okhotsk, Kara, as well as in the Black Sea at a depth of 4-35 meters from the water surface and can “live” up to 11-18 years. Scientists managed to study about 30 species of seaweed, among which, as the most useful, the kelp of the northern seas is distinguished.
It should be noted that this edible seaweed has been known to coastal inhabitants for a long time (for example, in Japan, during the period of the development of kelp, more than 150 types of dishes were created with it). And with the spread of information about the beneficial properties and the development of technologies for processing and preserving seaweed, it has become very popular even among residents of countries remote from the sea.
Among the useful components of seaweed are manganese, L-fructose, cobalt, bromine, iodine, potassium, iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, vitamin B2, C, E, B12, A, D, B1, sodium, folic, pantothenic acid, zinc, polysaccharides, magnesium, sulfur, protein substances.
Scientists argue that the systematic use of kelp, at least in small quantities, improves metabolism, prevents the development of tumors, stimulates the immune system, slows down the development of vascular sclerosis, prevents excessive blood clotting and the formation of blood clots. And also seaweed is useful in violation of the digestion process, the work of the central nervous system, diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular system.
In cooking, kelp is used to prepare all kinds of salads, soups and such unusual dishes as: cheese cakes with seaweed and potatoes, peppers stuffed with kelp, vegetarian herring under a fur coat and others.
This is a collective name for representatives of woody plants of the genus Flowering Adox family (more than 150 species), which are mainly common in the countries of the northern hemisphere (Siberia, Kazakhstan, our country, the Caucasus, Russia, Canada). Basically, viburnum can be in the form of evergreen and deciduous shrubs or small trees with large white inflorescences and small red fruits, which are distinguished by juicy pulp with a characteristic bitter-astringent taste.
The pulp of viburnum contains a large amount of vitamins C, P, organic acids, pectin, carotene and tannins.
Kalina has diuretic, antiseptic and astringent properties, therefore it is recommended to use it for diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract, heart, edema, wounds, bleeding ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract, to strengthen immunity and restore strength.
From the fruits of viburnum, infusions, decoctions, jams, jelly, wines, desserts, sweets and sauces are prepared for meat dishes.
It belongs to the herbaceous vegetables of the Pumpkin family and is distinguished by a hard-rough stem creeping along the ground, large lobed leaves, and a pumpkin fruit of a bright orange color with a hard bark and white seeds. The weight of the fetus can reach two hundred kilograms, and the diameter is a meter.
The homeland of the pumpkin is South America, where the Indians ate not only pumpkin, but even the flowers and stems of the plant. In the modern world, this vegetable is common in countries of the temperate and subtropical natural zone and has about 20 varieties.
The composition of useful substances of pumpkin is distinguished by a set of vitamins (PP, E, F, C, D, A, B, T), macro- and microelements (calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium).
It is recommended to eat pumpkin fruit for gastrointestinal diseases with high acidity, constipation, atherosclerosis, tuberculosis, gout, diabetes, disruption of the heart and kidneys, cholelithiasis, metabolism, and edematous pregnancy. Pumpkin seeds are included in the diet for liver diseases and disorders of the reproductive system. Pumpkin juice is very useful for a number of diseases, namely, it helps to fight preinfluenza, constipation, hemorrhoids, nervous excitement, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy or during seasickness.
Pumpkin can be used to make pies, soup, pancakes, porridge, sweet desserts, garnish for meat.
“Earthen pear”, “Jerusalem artichoke”
Refers to perennial herbaceous plants with ovoid leaves, tall straight stems, inflorescences “baskets” of yellow color. Jerusalem artichoke tubers have a pleasant sweetish taste and juicy tender pulp, reach 100 grams in weight, have a yellow, white, pink, red or purple color. Jerusalem artichoke is a perennial plant that can “live” in one place for up to 30 years. His homeland is considered to be North America, where the “earthen pear” grows wild.
Jerusalem artichoke tubers contain a lot of iron, as well as chromium, calcium, silicon, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, carotenoids, fiber, pectin, fats, organic acids, inulin, carotene, essential amino acids (valine, arginine, leicine, lysine), proteins vitamin B6, PP, B1, C, B2.
To use Jerusalem artichoke is recommended for urolithiasis, gout, salt deposition, anemia, obesity, during the treatment of hypertension and stroke. “Earthen pear” lowers sugar level, pressure, has a beneficial effect on the pancreas, increases hemoglobin, removes heavy metal salts, toxins, cholesterol, radionuclides, and restores strength.
Jerusalem artichoke is eaten raw, baked or fried.
It belongs to perennial herbaceous plants that belongs to the Onion family. It features a complex pink / white bulb, which consists of 3-20 cloves, and straight, tall edible stems with a characteristic odor and pungent taste.
In ancient Greece, as well as in Rome, garlic was considered the king of spices and the main medicine, which also “strengthens the spirit and multiplies strength.” Garlic comes from the mountainous and foothill regions of Central Asia, India, Afghanistan, the Mediterranean, the Carpathians and the Caucasus.
Among the useful components of garlic are: fats, fiber, proteins, carbohydrate, potassium, ascorbic acid, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc and magnesium, iodine, vitamin C, P, B, D, phytoncides, sulfur compounds (more one hundred species) and essential oil, diallyl trisulfide, allixin, adenosine, allicin, eihoen, pectins, selenium.
Garlic is effective against typhus, staphylococcus and dysentery pathogens, pathogenic yeasts and fungi, and poison molecules. It successfully exerts an antitumor effect, lowers glucose levels, normalizes cholesterol, prevents blood clots and increased blood clotting, eliminates the effects of stress, protects DNA molecules from the negative effects of free radicals and other chemical aggressors, and prevents mutation in protooncogenes. Also, garlic is useful for nervous diseases, forgetfulness, pulmonary asthma, facial paralysis, tremors, flatulence, sciatica, joint diseases, gout, spleen diseases, constipation and many other diseases.
As we have already said, as a seasoning in food, you can eat not only a garlic bulb, but also young shoots of stems. So garlic is added to salads, meat, vegetable and fish dishes, soups, sote, sandwiches, appetizers, marinades, canning.
Deciduous or evergreen tree / shrub of the genus Subtropical or Tropical, Ebony family. The persimmon fruit is a sweet orange fleshy berry. And although the “heart apple” looks like from the northern part of China, now it is grown even in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Greece, Turkey, America, Australia and other countries, where about 500 of its species were bred.
Persimmon fruit contains vitamin PP, C, A, E, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, iodine, magnesium, copper. A feature of persimmon is that the sugar in its composition does not increase the level of glucose in the human body.
It is recommended to use persimmon for gastrointestinal problems, peptic ulcer, kidney and liver diseases. Its beneficial substances destroy various types of E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, help with scurvy, vitamin deficiency, leukemia, encephalitis, cerebral hemorrhage, colds, sore throat, atherosclerosis, increase the number of red blood cells, remove excess water from the body.
Persimmons are tasty on their own, so they are most often consumed raw, as a self-sufficient dish. And also “heart apple” can be added to salads, meat dishes, desserts (puddings, jams, jellies, mousses, marmalades) or to make fresh juices, wine, cider, beer from it.
It is produced from barley grains, by crushing them and without grinding barley kernels, with preliminary cleaning from mineral and organic impurities, parts of weeds, small and defective barley grains. Barley, as a grain crop, has been known to mankind since the era of the Neolithic revolution of the Middle East (about 10 thousand years ago). Wild varieties of barley are found in the area from the Tibetan mountains to North Africa and Crete.
It should be noted that barley groats are nutritious products and have a dry calorie content per 100 grams. 313 kcal, but in boiled one – only 76 kcal.
Barley porridge contains vitamin A, E, D, PP, B vitamins, phosphorus, chromium, silicon, fluorine, zinc, boron, calcium, manganese, potassium, iron, molybdenum, copper, nickel, magnesium, bromine, cobalt, iodine, strontium, fiber, slowly digestible carbohydrates, protein (which is almost completely absorbed by the body).
Moderate consumption of barley cereal promotes normal metabolism and digestion, full brain activity, cleanses the gastrointestinal tract, removes harmful decay products and toxins, and does not increase blood sugar levels. It is recommended for constipation, overweight or diabetes mellitus, endocrine diseases, diseases of the kidneys, gallbladder, liver, urinary tract, vision problems, arthritis.
Barley is used to prepare all kinds of cereals, soups, homemade sausages, zraz, muffins and salads.
This is the meat of rams or sheep, which is in special demand among the representatives of the eastern peoples. It should be noted that the meat of young castrated rams or well-fed sheep up to three years old is distinguished by the best taste. Such meat is distinguished by a light red color of meat pulp and white fat, compared to beef or pork, it has a lower cholesterol level.
Lamb is distinguished by a set of useful substances such as: potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, iodine, iron, vitamins E, B2, B1, PP, B12. It is recommended to be included in the diet for the elderly, to prevent caries, diabetes, sclerosis, gastritis with low acidity, to normalize cholesterol metabolism, stimulate the pancreas and thyroid glands, cardiovascular system, and hematopoiesis.
All kinds of dishes are prepared from lamb, for example, such as: shashlik, kebab, meatballs, saute, stew, narhangi, dumplings, pilaf, manty, khinkali, cabbage rolls and more.
Belongs to the Mackerel family of the Percoid detachment. In addition, scientists classify it as “a pelagic schooling heat-loving fish, which is distinguished by a spindle-shaped body, blue-green color with black curved stripes and small scales.” An interesting fact about mackerel is that it lacks a swim bladder. Due to the fact that mackerel prefers water temperatures from + 8 to + 20 C, it is forced to make seasonal migrations along the coasts of Europe and America, as well as through the strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.
Mackerel meat, in addition to being an excellent source of animal protein, contains a large amount of iodine, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, fluoride, zinc, niacin, vitamin D, unsaturated omega-3 fats.
Eating mackerel helps to improve the health of bones, nervous system, prevent cardiovascular diseases, improve blood flow and reduce the risk of blood clots. It also relieves psoriasis symptoms, improves brain function and vision, lowers blood cholesterol levels, and protects against asthma. Mackerel meat is recommended for certain types of cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and a weak immune system.
Mackerel is smoked, pickled, fried, salted, baked on the grill, in the oven and microwave, stuffed, stewed. Pates, rolls, pies, salads, fish hodgepodge and borscht, snacks, casserole, fish soup, meatballs, sandwiches, soufflé, schnitzel, aspic are made from its meat.
This is a cold-loving pelagic bottom fish of the Cod family, the genus Pollock, which is distinguished by its spotted coloration, large eyes, the presence of three dorsal fins and a short antennae on the chin. This fish can reach a meter in length, 4 kg in weight and 15 years old.
Its habitat is the northern part of the Pacific Ocean, the depth of residence and migration is from 200 to more than 700 m below the surface of the water, pollock can spawn in coastal waters up to 50 m deep.
Pollock meat and liver contains vitamin phosphorus, PP, potassium, iodine, sulfur, fluorine, cobalt, vitamin A, easily digestible protein.
The use of pollock helps to strengthen the respiratory system and the development of the child’s body. It is also advised to pregnant and lactating mothers, with atherosclerosis, thyroid diseases, to improve the functioning of the cardiovascular system, the condition of the mucous membranes and skin. Pollock liver is recommended for improving the condition of teeth, gums, hair, nails, for recovery after a serious illness.
Pollock is used to prepare soups, fish soup, casseroles, zrazy, pies, pancakes, cutlets, pasties, meatballs, salads, fish “nests”, “khve”, pizza, fish burgers, rolls. It is baked, boiled, fried, pickled, stewed.
Belongs to the representatives of the Pisces genus of the Eel-like order, it is distinguished by a cylindrical shape of the body and a “flattened” tail from the sides, a small head, a small mouth and sharp small teeth. The back color can be either brown or black, belly – yellow or white. The entire body of the eel is covered with a thick layer of mucus and small scales.
Its main types are distinguished: electric, river and conger eel. His homeland (where he appeared more than 100 mil. Years ago) is Indonesia.
An interesting feature of the river eel is that it leaves the rivers for spawning into the ocean waters (if necessary, crawling part of the way over land), after throwing eggs, the eel dies. Also, it should be noted that this fish belongs to predators as it feeds on crustaceans, larvae, worms, snails, caviar of other fish, small ruffs, perches, roach, smelt.
Eel meat contains high quality fats, proteins, vitamins A, B2, B1, E, D, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, selenium, omega-3 fatty acids.
The use of eel helps to reduce fatigue in the heat, prevents the development of cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, and aging of skin cells.
Eel is cooked under various sauces, sushi, fish soup, soups, stews, pizza, kebabs, salads, canapes are made from it. And also it is fried, baked or smoked.
These are mushrooms that belong to the Lamellar group of the genus Millechnik of the Russula family. They are distinguished by a fleshy convex-concave large reddish-red cap with concentric zones of color intensity, brown underside and plates “running down”. The pulp of the mushrooms is creamy orange; when broken, it turns green and releases a milky, bright orange juice with a persistent resinous odor. The leg of saffron milk caps is cylindrical, densely hollow and white in the middle. A favorite habitat is pine forests with sandy soil.
Ryzhiks contain vitamins A, B1, lactarioviolin, proteins, fiber, carbohydrates, fats, essential amino acids, and iron. Therefore, the use of saffron milk caps helps to improve the condition of hair and skin, eyesight, suppress the development of various bacteria and the causative agent of tuberculosis.
In cooking, mushrooms are fried, pickled, stewed, salted, and they are also used to prepare okroshka, soups, sauces, pies, dumplings, pasties and even fricassee.
It is a concentrated dairy product made from cream with a fat content of 82,5%. It contains a balanced, easily digestible complex of phosphatides, fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids, as well as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins A, D, carotene.
In moderate doses, it is recommended to use it to strengthen the body, with chronic cholecystitis, pancreatitis and gallstone disease, to produce bile acids and sex hormones, improve the overall balance of blood lipids.
The range of application of butter in cooking is so wide that it is difficult to give all its possible variants. For example, it is used for sandwiches, sauces, creams, baked goods, frying fish, meat, vegetables, fish mousses.