So the summer was noisy with bright colors, the watermelon August ended and September waited for us to visit. If for the inhabitants of the northern hemisphere, he is associated with the first month of autumn, then for the southern hemisphere he is the herald of spring. Well, let us sigh a little with regret about summer entertainments and boldly rush to meet the Day of Knowledge, the velvet season, abundance and charm of “Indian summer”.
September got its name from Latin septem (seven) because it was the seventh month of the old Roman calendar (before Caesar’s calendar reform). The Slavs called him “heather“, In honor of the heather blossoming during this period, or Ryuin (to roar), because in this month the autumn weather began, which” roared “outside the window.
In September, the Slavic New Year or Church New Year begins (September 14), that is, a new starting point for the Church year and its holidays (the first of them is the feast of the Nativity of the Most Holy Theotokos).
In the fall, we follow the principles of seasonal nutrition, which are commanded by the wise Chinese. Namely, when planning a diet in September, we take into account the peculiarities of this season and choose foods that are traditional for our area.
It belongs to vegetable crops and is one of the varieties of garden cabbage. It has large heads of cabbage, but unlike white cabbage, it has dark green corrugated thin leaves.
The homeland of Savoy cabbage is the Italian county of Savoy. Now it is quite popular in the USA and Western European countries. In Russia, they began to grow it since the XNUMXth century, however, Savoy cabbage did not acquire much distribution in our country, although in its raw form its taste and nutritional qualities are much higher than that of white cabbage.
This variety of cabbage belongs to low-calorie foods – only 28 kcal.
Among the useful substances of savoy cabbage, it should be noted vitamin C, E, A, B1, PP, B6, B2, potassium salt, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sugar, protein, fiber, phytoncides, mustard oils, iron, carotene, ash substances , thiamine, riboflavin, amino acids, carbohydrates and pectin substances, glutathione, ascorbigen, mannitol alcohol (is a sugar substitute for diabetics).
It should be noted that savoy cabbage is a natural powerful antioxidant, that is, it helps to protect the body from carcinogens, strengthens the immune system, prevents cell aging, regulates the nervous system, prevents the development of cancer cells, prevents an increase in blood pressure, has a diuretic property, is easily absorbed by the body and great for diabetics’ diets.
In cooking, savoy cabbage is used to prepare salads, soups, borscht, stuffed cabbage with meat, as a filling for pies and casseroles.
It is a herbaceous biennial plant that belongs to the Umbrella (or Celery) family. It differs in that in the first year of its growth, a rosette of leaves and a root crop is formed, and in the second – a seed bush and seeds.
It is noteworthy that at first carrots were grown only for the sake of fragrant seeds and leaves, and only in the XNUMXst century. n. e. (judging from ancient written sources) began to use its root vegetable, which was originally purple.
Now in the world there are more than 60 types of carrots, it is distributed on all continents, except for Antarctica.
Carrots contain many useful substances: vitamin B, C, PP, K, E, beta-carotene (transformed into vitamin A in the body), proteins, carbohydrates, minerals (magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, cobalt, iron, copper, zinc , iodine, chromium, fluorine, nickel), essential oils, phytoncides, pectins.
Carrots are advised to use to strengthen the retina of the eye (that is, with myopia, conjunctivitis, blepharitis, night blindness), with rapid body fatigue, to support the mucous membranes, skin. And also carrots are useful for vitamin A deficiency, hypovitaminosis, diseases of the liver, cardiovascular system, stomach, kidneys, polyarthritis, mineral metabolism disorders, anemia, colitis, malignant tumors, intestinal dysbiosis, nephritis, dermatitis and other skin diseases. It has a diuretic and moderate choleretic properties, improves the functioning of the pancreas, has a positive effect on cell health and inhibits neoplasms, strengthens the nervous system, enhances the protective functions of the body, cleanses the body and maintains it in working order.
Carrots are prepared as an independent dish or used as a seasoning for various first and second courses, sauces.
They also have a little-known scientific name. Dark-fruited nightshade, and also popularly called them eggplants, blueberries and “blue”… Eggplant is a perennial herb with large, spiny, rough leaves and purple, bisexual flowers. The eggplant fruit is a large pear-shaped, round or cylindrical berry with a glossy or matte skin. The color ranges from brownish yellow to gray-green.
The homeland of eggplants is the Middle East, South Asia and India. This vegetable came to Africa in the XNUMXth century, to Europe – in the XNUMXth century, where it was actively cultivated only starting from the XNUMXth century.
Raw eggplant is a low-fat dietary product that has only 24 kcal per XNUMX grams.
Eggplant contains sugar, solids, fats, proteins, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, bromine, aluminum, chlorine, iron, molybdenum, iodine, zinc, copper, fluorine, cobalt, vitamin B6, B1, B9 , B2, C, PP, P, D, pectin, fiber, organic acids. And in very small doses, such a poisonous substance as “solanine M”.
Eggplant removes excess cholesterol from the body, prevents atherosclerosis, cholelithiasis, coronary heart disease, promotes hematopoiesis, has bactericidal properties, and stimulates the intestines. And also it is recommended to use it for kidney diseases and diabetes mellitus, for edema and gout.
All kinds of dishes are prepared from eggplants, for example: baked eggplants with tomatoes; canned eggplant in oil; eggplant rolls; eggplant julienne; Greek moussaka with eggplant; stuffed with meat eggplant; hodgepodge with eggplant; vegetable stew; caviar; fried or stewed eggplants with vegetables and many other dishes.
Refers to herbaceous perennial plants from the Cabbage family. It differs among its “fellows” (mustard, watercress and radish) in a fleshy, large root, erect tall stem with lanceolate, linear or whole-edged leaves.
This spicy-aromatic plant was known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks, who considered it able not only to stimulate appetite, but also to activate the vital forces of the body.
Horseradish contains fiber, phytoncides, essential oils, vitamin C, B1, B3, B2, E, B6, folic acid, macro- and microelements (potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, manganese, copper, arsenic), sugar, amino acids, lysozyme (bactericidal protein substance), organic compounds, sinigrin glycoside (broken down into allyl mustard oil), myrosin enzyme.
Horseradish has bactericidal properties, stimulates appetite, enhances the secretion of the gastrointestinal tract, has antiscorbutic, expectorant and choleretic properties, prevents the development of caries. It is recommended for various inflammatory processes, diseases of the liver, bladder, colds, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gout, skin diseases, rheumatism and sciatica.
In cooking, horseradish root is used to make sauces, which are served with fish and cold meats, vegetable salads.
Finely chopped horseradish leaves harmonize well with cold soups (vegetable and mushroom okroshka, botvinia), they are used for salting, pickling and pickling cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, cabbage and even gooseberries.
They also call a fig tree, a fig tree, a wine berry, a fig, a Smyrna berry or a fig – a deciduous subtropical ficus with a smooth light gray bark and large bright green leaves. Nondescript small flowers turn into pear-shaped sweet-juicy infructescences with thin skin, small hairs and seeds. Depending on the variety, figs are yellow, yellow-green or black-blue in color.
Figs come from the mountainous region of Caria – the ancient province of Asia Minor. Today, figs are cultivated in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Crimea, Georgia, the Absheron Peninsula, the Mediterranean countries, the mountainous regions of Armenia, certain regions of Azerbaijan, on the coast of Abkhazia and Krasnodar Territory.
It is noteworthy that, according to the Bible, it was with a fig leaf (fig leaf) that Adam and Eve covered their nakedness after having tasted the apple from the tree of knowledge.
Figs contain iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, potassium, fiber, ficin, vitamin A, B, 24% raw sugar and 37% dried.
Fig fruits have antipyretic and diaphoretic properties, laxative effect, improve the condition of the stomach and kidneys, promote blood clotting and resorption of vascular blood clots, relieve strong heartbeat. Therefore, it is useful to include them in the diet for diseases of the cardiovascular system, hypertension and venous insufficiency, sore throat, colds, inflammation of the gums and respiratory tract. Fig successfully fights hangover, overweight, cough, stress, improves appetite.
In cooking, “wine berry” is used fresh, dried and dried for baking, desserts, sorbets, syrups, jam, jam, and preserves. Gourmets recommend using figs in dishes made with fish, meat or cheese (for example, stuffing fish with figs or baking cheese with it).
It is a fruit tree of the Rosaceae family, which reaches a height of 30 m and is distinguished by rounded leaves and large white flowers. Pear fruits are large, oblong or round in shape, green, yellow or reddish in color.
The first mention of pears is found in Chinese poetry written a thousand years before our era. Also, there were ancient Greek literary memorials in which this fruit was also mentioned, and the Peloponnese was called the “Country of pears”.
At the moment, more than a thousand varieties of pear are known in the world, but this is not the limit for breeders who present new varieties of it every year.
This fruit belongs to low-calorie foods, since in its raw form it has 42 kcal per hundred grams, but in dried form the pear becomes high-calorie – already 270 kcal.
Scientists have found many useful substances in the pear: fiber, sucrose, glucose, fructose, carotene, folic acid, iron, manganese, iodine, potassium, copper, calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, fluorine, zinc, molybdenum, ash, pectins, organic acids, vitamin A, B3, B1, B5, B2, B6, C, B9, P, E, PP, tannins, antibiotic arbutin, biologically active substances, essential oils.
Pear has antimicrobial and bactericidal action, improves metabolism, promotes the synthesis of healthy blood cells, has a beneficial effect on the work of the heart and muscles, helps to lower cholesterol levels, enhances digestion, stimulates the kidneys and liver. Therefore, it is recommended to include it in the diet of medical food for heart palpitations, depression, dizziness, prostatitis, inflammation of the bladder and kidneys, dysfunction of the pancreas, fatigue, loss of appetite, poor healing of wounds and tissues, nervousness, insomnia and other diseases.
Most often, the pear is consumed fresh, and it can also be dried, baked, canned, made compotes and juices, made preserves, marmalades and jams.
It is also called a drunkard or gonobel – it is a deciduous shrub of the Heather family of the Vaccinium genus, it is distinguished by curved smooth gray branches and blue with a bluish bloom, juicy edible berries. Blueberries grow in the forest zone, the upper belt of the mountains, tundra, in swamps and peat bogs in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere with a cold and temperate climate.
Refers to dietary foods with low calorie content – only 39 kcal.
Blueberries contain phyllochionine (vitamin K1), benzoic, citric, malic, oxalic and acetic acids, fiber, coloring pectin and tannins, carotene, provitamin A, ascorbic acid, B vitamins, flavonoids, vitamin PK, PP, essential amino acids.
Blueberry berries are distinguished by unique properties: protects against radioactive radiation, strengthens blood vessels, normalizes heart function, maintains the health of the pancreas and intestines, slows down the aging of nerve cells and the brain. And also blueberry has a choleretic, antiscorbutic, cardiotonic, antisclerotic, anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effect. It is recommended to use it for hypertension, atherosclerosis, capillary toxicosis, sore throat, fever, rheumatism, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, to restore vision, increase blood clotting and activate (maintain) vitality,
Usually, blueberries are eaten fresh, and they are also used to make jam and wine.
Groats of oatmeal
It is the main ingredient in oatmeal (oatmeal), which is obtained from oats by steaming, peeling and grinding them. Usually oatmeal has a grayish-yellow color with various shades, and also in terms of quality it is of the first and highest grade.
Oatmeal contains natural antioxidants, phosphorus, calcium, biotin (vitamin B), potassium, iron, magnesium, sodium, zinc, vitamin B1, E, PP, B2, beta-glucan.
Oatmeal foods increase the body’s ability to resist the effects of the environment and various infections, prevent anemia, promote the development of the skeletal system, improve skin condition, lower cholesterol levels, and maintain optimal sugar levels. Oatmeal has an anti-inflammatory and enveloping effect, cleanses and stimulates the gastrointestinal tract, prevents the progression of gastritis and stomach ulcers, it is recommended for pain and bloating, dermatitis.
We all remember the famous phrase of Berimor (the butler from the movie “The Dog of the Baskervilles”) “Oatmeal, sir!”. But it should be noted that in addition to oatmeal, this cereal is used for the preparation of viscous cereal porridges, mashed soups, slimy and milk soups, casseroles.
Other names – chickpeas, nakhat, mutton peas, blister, shish – is an annual, leguminous plant of the legume family, which also belongs to the group of legumes. Most of the chickpeas are grown in the Middle East for their seeds, which are the basis for hummus. Chickpea seeds have different colors (from yellowish to dark brown) and outwardly look like a ram’s head with a bird’s beak. They grow one to three pieces per pod.
Chickpeas are cultivated in Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region, East Africa, Central Asia (where it comes from) and India.
Chickpea grains contain protein, oils, carbohydrates, vitamin B2, A, B1, B6, BXNUMX, C, PP, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, malic and oxalic acid, methionine and tryptophan.
The use of chickpea dishes helps to reduce cholesterol levels, increase immunity, improve blood composition and strengthen bone tissue. It is also recommended for the prevention of vascular and heart diseases, normalization of digestion, regulation of blood sugar levels, and protection of the eyes from cataracts.
Chickpeas are consumed fried and boiled, used for the preparation of salads, confectionery and canned food. Sprouted chickpeas are added to vitamin cocktails, soups and pates.
Belongs to the Perch family. It differs in that it has a laterally compressed, elongated body with small serrated scales, spines on the gill bones, a large mouth with elongated jaws and numerous small teeth, and even fangs. Zander is greenish-gray with a white belly and transverse brown-black stripes.
The habitat of zander is rivers and lakes with high oxygen levels in the water. It mainly lives at a depth with a non-silted sandy or clay bottom.
Pike perch meat contains vitamin B2, A, B1, B6, C, B9, PP, E, protein, fat, calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chlorine, zinc, iron, iodine, manganese, copper, fluorine, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum and nickel.
Pike perch is used for making fish soup and salads, it can be baked in the oven or fried, grilled, stuffed, salted, wilted, dried, boiled or stewed.
Fish of the Carp family, which is distinguished by a laterally compressed body, long fins and a keel not covered with scales. The color of the bream varies from lead to black with a greenish sheen. Adults can reach 50-75 cm in length and 8 kg in weight. Bream loves reservoirs with moderate currents and wide steps of steep bottom dumps, old river beds in reservoirs and large bays.
Bream meat is a source of phosphorus, omega-3 fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, chlorine, chromium, molybdenum, fluorine, nickel, vitamin B1, C, B2, E, A, PP, D.
Bream is useful for cleaning blood vessels, strengthens bones, lowers cholesterol, prevents the development of coronary artery disease, stroke and hypertension.
If you think that bream is suitable only for fish soup or frying, then you are wrong – chefs have come up with many ways to prepare delicious dishes with bream. For example, “fried bream on a wire rack”, “pickled bream”, “baked Donskoy bream”, “baked bream on a fire”, “bream stuffed with buckwheat porridge”, “golden bream cooked in Roman style”, “stewed bream with quince ”and others.
This is an anadromous fish of the genus Freshwater of the Sturgeon family, which is distinguished by longitudinal rows of bony scutes and rays of the caudal fin that go around the end of the tail. Sturgeon is widespread in Asia, North America and Europe. For all peoples, sturgeon was considered the food of aristocrats and monarchs. Nowadays sturgeon is caught more for the sake of the swim bladder and caviar.
Sturgeon contains easily digestible fat and protein, amino acids, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, chlorine, fluorine, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, vitamins B1, C, B2, PP, useful fatty acids, iodine, fluorine,
The use of sturgeon helps to reduce cholesterol, bone growth, reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and normalizes the thyroid gland.
Sturgeon meat is consumed fresh (for preparing various dishes), smoked or salted.
This is a mushroom from the Borovik genus, which has the largest number of names in Russian. In different regions of Russia it is called differently: bebik, belevik, strikers, capercaillie, yellowish, ladybug, bear, pan, podkorovnik, truthful, expensive mushroom.
The porcini mushroom has a large fleshy cap and a thick, swollen white leg. The color of the mushroom cap depends on the place of growth and age, it is light, yellowish and dark brown. Some subspecies of the porcini mushroom are real giants – they can reach half a meter in diameter and up to 30 cm in height.
The calorie content of the porcini mushroom in its raw form is small 22 kcal per 100 g, and in dried form – 286 kcal.
White mushroom contains vitamins A, B1, C, D, riboflavin, sulfur, polysaccharides, lecithin ether, ergothioneine, hercedine alkaloid.
The use of porcini mushroom promotes the health and growth of hair and nails, supports the function of the thyroid gland, stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, helps to fight cancer, prevents the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels, supports cell renewal, and creates protection against bacteria, viruses, carcinogens and fungi. And also it has wound healing, anti-infectious, tonic and antitumor properties. White mushroom should be included in the diet with a breakdown, tuberculosis, angina pectoris, in order to improve metabolism.
It is recommended to eat dried mushrooms (like croutons without additional processing) and mushroom soups. Fried porcini mushrooms should be eaten sparingly and with plenty of juicy vegetables.
It is a food-grade dairy product that is obtained from raw milk, to which lactic acid bacteria or milk-curdling enzymes are added. In industry, cheese is produced using melting salts that “melt” non-dairy raw materials and dairy foods.
Types of cheese: fresh cheese (Mozzarella, Feta, Ricotta, Mascarpone), pressed uncooked cheese (Cheddar, Gouda, Pecorino), pressed boiled cheese (Beaufort, Parmesan), soft cheese with mold (Camembert, Brie), soft cheese with washed edges (Limburgskiy, Epuisse, Munster), blue cheese with blue (Roquefort, Ble de Cos), sheep’s or goat’s milk cheese (Saint-Maur, Chevre), processed cheese (Shabziger), aperitif cheese, sandwich cheese, flavored cheese (paprika, spices, nuts).
Cheese contains fat, protein (more than meat), phosphorus, calcium, essential amino acids (including methionine, lysine and tryptophan), phosphatides, vitamin A, C, B1, D, B2, E, B12, PP, pantothenic acid …
Cheese stimulates appetite and secretion of gastric juice, replenishes high energy costs, relieves stress and improves sleep, is useful for tuberculosis and bone fractures. It is recommended to be included in the menu of children, pregnant women and mothers during breastfeeding.
There are a lot of ways and options for using cheese in cooking. The first and second dishes, meat and fish dishes, cheese snacks and platter, pastries, salads, cheese fondue, etc. are prepared with it.
This is the name of the meat of a five-month-old calf, which has a more refined and tender bite compared to beef. Dairy calf meat, which is fed exclusively with milk, is in special demand in Britain, Holland and France. Such meat is characterized by a pale pink color, velvety structure and a thin film of subcutaneous fat. 100 grams of dairy veal contains 96,8 kcal.
Veal contains lipids, proteins, vitamin B1, PP, B2, B6, B5, E, B9, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, sodium, copper, phosphorus, amino acids, extractives, gelatin.
Calf meat contributes to the regulation of glucose and blood clotting. It is useful for the health of the nervous system and digestion, skin, mucous membranes, cardiovascular diseases, anemia, for the prevention of heart attacks and urolithiasis. It is recommended for children, pregnant women, diabetics and hypertensive patients.
Veal can be boiled, baked and fried, cook the first (broths, soups) and second (escalope, roast beef, zrazy, stew) dishes, snacks. Gourmets can cook veal, for example, with chocolate or strawberry sauce, ginger and blueberry sauce.
Or “Petrov Batogi“Is a biennial or perennial herb of the Asteraceae family, which has a tall, straight herbaceous stem (up to 120 cm) and blue or pinkish flowers. Now in the world only two types of chicory are cultivated (common and salad), while in nature there are six more types of chicory. It is distributed in South and North America, India, Australia, Eurasia, and northern Africa.
Chicory root contains carotene, inulin, vitamin C, pectin, vitamins B1, B3, B2, micro- and macroelements, organic acids, proteins and resins.
Chicory restores the intestinal microflora, promotes the digestive system and heart, normalizes metabolism, dilates blood vessels and removes cholesterol, has a diuretic and fat-burning properties. Therefore, it is useful for diabetes mellitus, gastritis, dysbiosis, stomach and duodenal ulcers, diseases of the gallbladder and liver, tachycardia, atherosclerosis, anemia, ischemic disease and anemia.
Chicory root drink is a great substitute for coffee.
Also called Voloshsky. It is a tall tree of the Walnut family with a dense, wide, rounded crown and large leaves. The walnut fruit is distinguished by a thick leathery-fibrous peel and a strong bone.
The peel of walnuts contains vitamin A, B12, B1, B15, B2, K, C, PP, E, carotene, sitosterones, tannins, quinones, linolenic, gallic, ellagic and linoleic acid, juglone, gallotannins, essential oil, phytoncides , potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, iron, manganese, aluminum, zinc, cobalt, iodine, copper, chromium, strontium, nickel, fluorine.
Walnut has a positive effect on the blood vessels of the brain, relieves strong nervous tension, strengthens the liver, heart, is useful with an increased level of mental or physical labor, it is recommended for the treatment of thyroid diseases.
Due to its taste, walnuts are a universal ingredient in cooking; they are used for desserts and baked goods, nut sauce for fish and meat dishes.