- What are wild strawberries
- How to tell strawberries from strawberries
- Where strawberries grow
- Composition and calorie content
- Strawberry species
- Strawberry classification
- Strawberry varieties
- Mid-early varieties:
- Mid-season varieties:
- Mid-late varieties:
- Late varieties:
- Growing strawberries from seeds
- Useful properties of strawberries
- Useful properties for men
- The benefits of strawberries for women
- Benefits for children
- Harm of strawberries and contraindications
- Strawberries in landscape design
How is wild strawberry different from strawberry and what are its types
Strawberries are a tasty and healthy berry that looks like strawberries. It grows mainly in the forest. Has different varieties, designed for growing in the garden. You can find out how strawberries are useful for the body in this article.
What are wild strawberries
Strawberry is a perennial plant that belongs to the Pink family. The name in Russia comes from the word “strawberry”, because of the heavy berries that incline thin stems to the ground. In the botanical dictionary, the name of the plant comes from the word “fragaris”, which in Latin means “fragrant.” This is due to the pleasant and pronounced aroma of the berries.
The root system consists of a thick, fibrous rhizome. They grow into the ground up to 30 cm deep.
The leaves are oval, rhombic, trifoliate with characteristic denticles along the edges. The color of the leaves is dark green, medium to large. Plant height 25-30 cm.
Inflorescences are few-flowered and multi-flowered, located at the top of the peduncles. The flowers are mostly bisexual, but there are also unisexual flowers. They are pollinated, have rosaceous, white, red, yellow petals with a lot of pistils and stamens.
The fruits are multi-nuts. The characteristic color is yellow, crimson, white. The taste is pleasant, sweet-sour, pronounced aroma. Strawberries are hardy plants. Grows in forest glades, meadows, forest edges, slopes. Prefers shade and coolness, so it is often lost between other bushes. The berries ripen in early July.
How to tell strawberries from strawberries
Strawberries are also a type of strawberry. Often gardeners call herbaceous plant by the size of the bush. Large – strawberries, small – strawberries. But the differences between them are not in the size of the bushes, but in the flowers. In strawberries, they are predominantly bisexual, while in strawberries, they are unisexual. The flower has five petals, white. The exception is a monoecious variety with bisexual flowers – Milan strawberry.
You can identify the fruit by the appearance of the bushes. Strawberries have tall bushes, the stem stands straight up to 40 cm in height, the leaves are large, directed upwards. The berries mostly grow above the leaves. A characteristic feature is the presence of a small number of mustaches.
Wild strawberry has a fragrant aroma. It resembles a combination of musk and honey. Fruits are not large – 5-6 g. The shape is elongated, the color is mainly pink, red, but sometimes cream. The berries are hard to tear off the green sepals.
Compared to strawberries, it will have a different flavor. Garden strawberries have larger berries up to 20 g. In some varieties, the mass of fruits is about 50 g. Two types of berries can be distinguished by their location. Strawberries have flower stalks above the leaves and are immediately visible.
Garden strawberries have flower stalks scattered to the sides. This is due not only to the severity of the berries, but also to the peculiarities. Slugs rarely damage strawberries, since they do not lie on the ground, but stand
Slugs eat strawberries less often, because the berries are not lying, but standing. If you do not take measures against slugs, then it may turn out that the harvest of medium-sized strawberries will be more than large-fruited strawberries.
The varieties of this berry have undergone modification and now there are a lot of them. Some of them do not have characteristic features – a pronounced neck, erect shoots. The garden strawberry species is characterized by small, border fruits and resembles strawberries. The main difference is the bisexual flowers. Unlike strawberries, strawberries yield higher yields.
Where strawberries grow
The berry prefers to grow in forest glades, slopes, edges, meadows. Considering botanical data, it originally appeared in East Asia. Over time, it settled in Europe, America, Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Italy, Africa. It is popular all over the world for its taste and useful properties.
There are no special soil requirements for growth. Therefore, you can often see shrubs on sunny edges, shady places mixed with other plants. Also, the berry grows in highlands.
Composition and calorie content
The plant contains a large number of useful elements:
The calorie content of strawberries per 100 g is 34 kcal.
Wild strawberry plant. The culture also has species that have arisen as a result of selection and hybridization. The main varieties of strawberries:
- Pineapple strawberries. The variety was obtained in the process of hybridization of large-fruited frost-resistant and Virginia berries. Large leaves, pineapple flowers are characteristic. Fruits are pink or red, weighing 7-75 g.
- Chilean. All parts of the shrub are pubescent. The leaves are rounded, with a characteristic blue. Flowers with white petals, located on low peduncles. The fruits are pink-red, the flesh is firm. In the ripening season, they are well separated from the green chalice. Does not tolerate cold.
- Musky or nutmeg. Length up to 40 cm, with stems and short petioles. The leaves are covered with hairs. Fruits up to 2.5 cm in diameter, weighing 3-5 g. Color pale pink, red.
- Eastern. The leaves are characterized by dense pubescence below and insignificant above. The stems are up to 30 cm high. The whiskers are long, but may be absent. Flowers are collected in inflorescences 2-7 pcs. The fruits are cone-shaped, red in color.
- Virginskaya. The height of the shrub is up to 25 cm. The leaves are green, the flowers are white. Fruits are up to 2 cm in diameter, conical in shape. The color of the berries is intense scarlet. The yield is low, the plant is resistant to cold.
- Forest, ordinary. This is a wild type of strawberry. Height up to 30 cm. Unpretentious to the soil, does not need maintenance. Flowers are collected in inflorescences. Grows in meadows among other shrubs. The fruits are small, sweet and sour. The color is light pink, red. It is often found in the composition of traditional medicine.
- Green. Height 5-20 cm. Stems are thin, whiskers are short. The leaves are oval and have obtuse teeth. Dense pubescence is observed below. The flowers are white, up to 2 cm in diameter. Fruits are globular, small – 2 g. They are pink-red when fully ripe.
These are the main plant species from which new varieties are derived.
There are a large number of varieties of this berry that have been bred in various ways from wild species. Each of them has certain differences and characteristics:
- Large-fruited. Berries weighing 25-40 g. Some may have a weight of up to 100 g. These varieties include: Albion, Brighton, Vima Xima, Gigantella, Clery, Lord.
- Small-fruited. The weight of the berries is not more than 25 g. But in most varieties the weight of the berries is about 5 g. Popular varieties include: Pineapple, White Soul, Seasons, Yellow Miracle, Forest Fairy Tale.
New varieties of this plant appear every year. This is due to the technological process and the development of hybridization.
- Victoria. Strong shrub with characteristic glossy leaves, dark green in color. The fruits have a conical shape, bright red color, pronounced aroma. The pulp is firm.
- Albion. The variety tolerates heat well. This is due to the presence of large leaves. The berries are red, conical in shape. Productivity is high, fruiting lasts a long time.
- Temptation. Peduncles are long. Can be used as an ornamental plant. The fruits are placed on peduncles and mustaches. The fruits are large, bright scarlet.
- Yellow miracle. Compact shrubs. Height up to 25 cm. Berries are long, weighing up to 8 g. The color is characteristic light yellow. The aroma is honeyed, reminiscent of pineapple. If the bushes grow in the shade, then the fruits will be white.
- Weiss Solemacher. Early ripening variety. The berries are yellow, creamy. The taste is sweet, with a pleasant aroma.
- Marshmallow. A variety with large fruits. Bushes are strong and tall, with numerous blooms. It tolerates frosts down to -35 degrees. The berries are deep red in the shape of a scallop. Weight up to 35 g.
- Baron Solemacher. Repaired variety, has no antennae. The height of the bushes is up to 25 cm. The berries are small, conical in shape and have a glossy surface. The aroma is pleasant and pronounced.
- Queen Elizabeth. Repaired grade. The fruits are red and large. In the first half of the harvest, they have an irregular shape. The pulp is juicy. This variety is well suited for freezing.
- Cinderella. Compact bushes with few mustaches. The leaves are rich green, large with a thick bloom of wax. The flowers are white. The berries are conical, large up to 40 g. The pulp is red-orange. The taste is sweet and sour.
- Asia. The bushes have strong roots and tolerate frost well. The shape of the berries is conical, slightly flattened. The fruits are sweet, aromatic.
- Wim Kimberly. The height of the bushes is up to 40 cm. The leaves are diamond-shaped, light green. The flowers are white, the berries are red.
- Festivalnaya. The bushes are tall. The berries are deep crimson, cone-shaped. Have grooves. The taste is soft and juicy, with a pleasant aroma. Berries weight about 35 g grows well in the shade and tolerates frost.
- Holiday. Tall bushes up to 35 cm, without antennae. Fruits are medium in size, yellow in color, pronounced aroma and pleasant sweet taste.
- Fireworks. Spherical type of bush. The leaves are oval, dark green. The fruits are red with a glossy finish. The pulp is firm and sweet and sour.
- Queen. The fruits are especially large – up to 40 g. The taste is sweet and sour, the color is scarlet. The yield is high. The plant is resistant to heat and cold, disease resistant.
- Gigantella Maxim. The berries resemble strawberries, since the weight of one to 100 g. They have a bright red color and sweet and sour taste.
- Roxanne. Compact low bushes. The fruits are dark red in color. Berries with a bright aroma.
- Malvina. One of the new varieties. The berries are dense, but juicy. The taste is sweet and sour. Fruits are large over 25 g. It tolerates frost well. The yield is high, the berries ripen in September.
- Florence. Differs in high productivity. The fruits are sweet and aromatic. Bushes are not tall. The plant is cold resistant. Fruiting lasts until mid-October. The berries are large, with a pronounced aroma and pleasant sweet taste. Resistant to diseases and pests.
For planting, you should choose a variety that will match the climate of a particular region.
Growing strawberries from seeds
Strawberry seeds are used for breeding. This is a complex process, but some varieties cannot be grown in any other way. The seeds of the berries are small. They are sown in the soil or grown in seedlings. Regardless of the method, the seeds are pre-stratified. This will help speed up their germination and prevent damage by pests and pathogenic microorganisms.
Stratification is done in two ways:
Wet gauze or cotton wool is poured into a container, and seeds are on them. The container is kept at the bottom of the refrigerator for 60-75 days. It is important to control humidity periodically.
- Sow seeds with soil in a container and store them in the refrigerator as well.
- In addition, for the emergence of strawberries, sufficient lighting, proper watering, and control of the soil condition will be required.
Useful properties of strawberries
Garden strawberries are less useful than forest strawberries. Many people remember the taste of these berries from childhood, but few know how useful strawberries are. The fruit contains a large amount of vitamins and minerals. It is recommended for diets and is often used in traditional medicine.
The benefits of strawberry leaves, which consist in the presence of tannins and essential oils, are mainly dried. Then they are used to prepare medicinal broths, infusions and simply aromatic tea.
The rich chemical composition makes the plant useful for such diseases:
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- kidney and gallbladder disease;
- disorders of the nervous system;
- angina, pharyngitis;
- colds, acute respiratory infections;
It is recommended to use for the prevention of oncology. The fruits retain their beneficial properties during storage in different ways. Strawberry jam, compote, marshmallow, candied fruit will be useful. Strawberry leaves are harvested for drying after fruiting.
Useful properties for men
Strawberries improve the function of the endocrine glands. In the male body, this is the prostate gland, which is responsible for the production of sex hormones. Vitamin C prevents the formation of carcinogens. They are the main reason for the development of oncology in the male genital organs. Berries have a good effect on sexual function and increase potency. With regular use, they can prolong an erection.
The benefits of strawberries for women
Berries are especially beneficial for women during pregnancy. The composition contains folic acid and vitamins necessary for the healthy development of the fetus. But strawberries are recommended to be consumed long before the planned conception. This will help to strengthen the immune system and the reproductive system.
The use of fruits in any form is an effective prevention of breast cancer. Recommended to be added to the diet during and after lactation. It has a beneficial effect on the normalization and restoration of hormonal levels.
The berries contain substances that slow down the aging process, normalize metabolism. It is recommended to use as a dietary supplement, since the product is healthy and low in calories.
They are widely used as aromatic substances in cosmetology. But strawberry leaves have an effective antiseptic effect. Decoctions of them are used for external treatment of the skin for acne, acne, dermatitis, which are accompanied by itching. Muscat scent is used in perfumery to create a fresh and lasting perfume.
Benefits for children
Children love strawberry jam. It is not only very tasty, but also healthy. It is recommended to give for colds, bronchitis, pharyngitis, sore throat, acute respiratory infections, gastrointestinal diseases. Berries strengthen the immune system, and vitamin C promotes quick recovery.
Eating fruits awakens appetite and helps to normalize nutrition. In childhood, difficulties often arise in this regard. The composition contains iron, so the berries in the forehead will help with the initial stage of iron deficiency anemia. In childhood, it often occurs against the background of helminthic invasions.
It is recommended to drink decoctions and tea from the leaves after intestinal infections, food poisoning. This will help restore the functioning of the digestive tract. Since berries are a source of all beneficial trace elements and vitamins, they should be in the diet of every child.
Harm of strawberries and contraindications
Despite the large amount of nutrients in the composition, the berry can harm the body. Main contraindications:
- Chronic diseases of the digestive system. Organic acids negatively affect health in case of stomach ulcers, ulcerative colitis, pancreatitis, gastritis. During pregnancy, an excessive amount of fresh berries can provoke the development of such diseases.
- Allergic reaction. It happens rarely, but it can manifest itself in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, you should be careful when adding strawberries to your diet.
- Increased production of gastric juice. In combination with oxalic acid and calcium, oxalate is formed, which negatively affects the digestive tract.
- Harm from the use of berries is rare and only if there are contraindications. As with any product, it is consumed in moderation with a balanced diet.
Women during lactation should be careful when introducing berries into the diet. They can cause allergies in a child.
Strawberries in landscape design
Strawberries are not only tasty and healthy berries. Modern designers use it to decorate the landscape. Many varieties allow you to combine the useful with the beautiful. In decorative floriculture, this application is popular. Ornamental varieties are used for growing in mixborders, and borders are formed from bushes. The main thing in this business is practicality and imagination.
Since the plant grows in almost any soil, it can be combined with other shrubs and flowers.
The use of hanging pots for growing strawberries is a definite design trend. Beautiful curly stems hang beautifully from the pot and delight with a harvest that is easy and convenient to pick. Such pots can be placed under a shed in the courtyard, near the entrance to the house, along the perimeter of the lawn under special garden arches. The order of placement may vary depending on the overall landscape design. Looks harmoniously with bushes of raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, bushes of black currant and mulberry.
For originality, bushes can be planted in pots of an unusual shape. For example, make a hole in an old chair. Remove the seat and replace it with
a box of soil. For planting, use low plants, which in their appearance will resemble a rug.
Another option is older, oversized boots. In this case, varieties with high stems will look better. For children, you can use old rubber toys, inflatable rings. The main correspondence to the size of the bush.
In any case, the use of strawberries in landscape design takes place. Will complement the exclusivity on the site of a country or private house, summer residence.
Strawberries and strawberries are similar in appearance to berries. Wild strawberries are very useful and rich in nutrients and trace elements. Recommended for planting in your own garden. You should choose frost-resistant varieties, resistant to pests and diseases, with high yields. Berries are useful for adults and children. Stored dry, frozen. Jam and compotes are very tasty. The leaves are recommended to be dried and prepared from tea in cold weather. Strawberries will also complement the garden interior.