So October passed, which, frightening us with bad weather, still occasionally gave us fine, sunny days. On the nose the last month of autumn – November.
He, too, like his predecessor, confused us in counting the months of a calendar year. According to the Gregorian calendar, it is the eleventh, but according to the old Roman calendar – the ninth, which became the basis of its name (from the Latin November, that is, the ninth). But our ancestors called it differently: Leafy, Leafy, Leafy, Ice, Breast, Freeze-up, Winter baking, Half-winter, Svadnik, A month of full pantries, Winter gate.
November will no longer pamper us with warmth – after all, it often sweeps with snow, threatens Mikhailovsky and Kazan frosts, fogs and rare thaws. This month is rich in church and secular holidays, and it also marks the beginning of the Nativity Fast.
November is a wonderful occasion not only to think about healthy eating, but also to switch to it. To begin with, honestly answer for yourself the questions: “what is an individual healthy diet?”, “How to make your own food diary?”, “How to build a drinking regimen?”, “How does the daily regimen affect the diet?”, “By what principle to choose foods? “,” What are hunger, food addiction and snacks? ”
So, the traditional foods of November:
A two-year-old vegetable of the Cruciferous family, which has a thick long stem (up to 60 cm or more) and oblong leaves, which, when ripe, form small stumps. On one of its bush, 50-100 pieces of such “mini-copies” of white cabbage can grow.
Belgian vegetable growers have grown this vegetable from kale varieties. Therefore, when describing this plant, Karl Linnaeus gave it a name in their honor. Over time, “Belgian” cabbage has spread widely in Holland, Germany and France, and later – in countries throughout Western Europe, Canada and the United States. It has a low calorie content – 43 kcal per 100 g and contains such useful substances as folic acid, easily digestible and high-quality protein, fiber, potassium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, B-group vitamins, provitamin A, vitamin C.
The consumption of Brussels sprouts prevents cardiovascular diseases, reduces the level of carcinogens in the body, improves the functioning of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, and promotes the formation of red blood cells. In addition, this vegetable reduces the risk of developing cancer cells of the rectum, breast and cervix. It is also recommended for anemia, constipation, diabetes, coronary heart disease, colds, insomnia, asthma, bronchitis, tuberculosis, restoration of pancreatic function. The consumption of Brussels sprouts during pregnancy contributes to the correct development of the fetal nervous system, reduces the risk of birth defects in newborns.
Brussels sprouts are widely used in cooking because of their delicate, nutty taste. For example, it can be cooked with bacon, eggs, mushrooms, bread crumbs, sesame seeds, ginger sauce, chicken breasts, “Italian style”, “Brussels style”. Milk soup, medallions, broth, omelet, salad, casserole, kulebyaku, pies can be considered very tasty dishes from this vegetable.
Refers to annual / biennial herbaceous plants of the Radish genus of the Cabbage family. This vegetable is distinguished by a rounded, oblong or oval root vegetable of black, white, gray, green, pink or purple.
Ancient Egypt is considered the birthplace of radish, where its seeds were used to prepare vegetable oil. From the Egyptian land, the radish “migrated” to Ancient Greece (where it was valued worth its weight in gold) and to the countries of Europe. But the radish was brought to the lands of our country from Asia, here it very quickly became not only popular, but also a real “savior” of the Slavs in times of famine.
The radish root vegetable contains minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, organic acids, essential oils, vitamin C, B2, B1, glucosides, sugar, sulfur-containing substances, fiber, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, amino acids.
Radish has phytoncidal, antimicrobial, bactericidal and anti-sclerotic properties, increases the level of mineral salts and vitamins in the body. In folk medicine, in various recipes, radish is recommended to be used to stimulate appetite, treat urolithiasis and radiculitis, empty the gallbladder, remove excess fluid from the body, produce bile, and stimulate intestinal motility. And also it is included in the diet of medical nutrition for hemoptysis, intestinal atony, kidney and liver disease, cholecystitis, constipation, to strengthen hair.
Roots and young radish leaves are used in cooking. They can be used to make delicious soups, salads, borscht, okroshka, snacks, all kinds of vegetable and meat dishes.
This is a vegetable of the Celery family, which is distinguished by a thick, pleasantly smelling and sweetish root, sharp-ribbed stem and feathery leaves. Parsnip fruits have a round-elliptical or flat-squeezed shape, yellowish-brown color.
Originally, parsnips (aracachu or Peruvian carrots) were grown by the Quechua Indians for their edible protein roots. It contains vitamin C, carotene, essential oils, carbohydrates, vitamin B2, B1, PP, essential oils, mineral salts, digestible carbohydrates, potassium. Useful substances are found both in the leaves (essential oils) and in the parsnip root (fructose and sucrose).
The use of parsnips helps to increase libido, reduce the water content in the body, improve digestion and blood circulation, have a beneficial effect on the nervous system, and reduce renal and hepatic colic. In addition, parsnips have analgesic, sedative, expectorant and diuretic properties. It is recommended for cardiovascular diseases, vitiligo, alopecia areata, angina attacks, cardiac neuroses and coronary insufficiency, hypertension, muscle cramps and neuroses.
In cooking, parsnip roots are dried and added to powder mixtures of seasonings. And also weakly spicy parsnip greens are used in the preparation of vegetable dishes, preparation of soup mixtures and canned food.
okra, ladies fingers, gombo
It belongs to the valuable vegetable crops of annual herbaceous plants of the Malvaceae family. Differs in a branched thick stem, lowered leaves of a light shade of green, large cream flowers. Okra fruits are four- or eight-sided green “boxes” with seeds.
The country that became the birthplace of okra is not reliably known, but most often this fruit is found in the countries of Africa, North America, and India. Modern vegetable growers have learned to grow it in colder regions (for example, our country, Russia, European countries).
Okra belongs to dietary foods with low calorie content – only 31 kcal per 100 g and contains such useful substances as: iron, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins C, K, B6, A, calcium, potassium, folic acid. It is recommended for use by pregnant women, diabetics, patients with gastrointestinal disorders, overweight people. Okra promotes recovery from angina, depression, chronic fatigue, asthma, atherosclerosis, ulcers, bloating, constipation, impotence.
In addition to the fruit, young okra leaves are also used in cooking for stewed and boiled dishes, salads, preservation and as a side dish. Its roasted seeds can be used instead of coffee.
Refers to annual vegetable herbaceous plants of the Amaranth family. It differs in light or dark green, corrugated or smooth leaves that resemble a human hand in shape. And also it has greenish small flowers and fruits in the form of oval nuts.
BC spinach was grown in Ancient Persia, but Christian knights brought it to Europe when they returned from the Crusades. Until now, in Arab countries, it is considered indispensable in the preparation of many dishes.
Low-calorie spinach – 22 kcal per 100 g of fresh leaves, which contain vitamin C, B6, A, B2, B1, PP, E, P, K, D2, protein, iodine, easily digestible and organically bound iron, minerals, potassium, fiber …
Spinach leaves have a laxative, tonic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic effect. Eating spinach helps prevent cancer, lose weight, normalize bowel function, and inhibit the development of nervous disorders. It is recommended for anemia, exhaustion, anemia, hypertension, gastritis, diabetes mellitus, enterocolitis.
Spinach can be used to make salads, calzones, lean pie, canneloni, quiches, pasta, casseroles, rolls, cutlets, cabbage soup, sabzu-kaurma, soufflés, mashed soups, phali, pasta and other ordinary and very unusual dishes.
Belongs to a subspecies of herbaceous vines of the Actinidia Chinese family and is distinguished by fruits with “hairy” skin and green flesh.
The birthplace of this plant is considered to be China in which its progenitor, liana mikhutao, grew. And although there are now more than 50 varieties of kiwi in the world, only a few of them are edible. The main suppliers of kiwi on an industrial scale are New Zealand and Italy.
Kiwi fruit is a low-calorie product as it contains 48 kcal per hundred grams. Among its useful components should be highlighted fiber, glucose, amino acids, fructose, magnesium, vitamin E, C, B1, A, PP, B2, B6, B3, potassium, beta-carotene, phosphorus, calcium, iron, pectins, flavonoids, folic acid acid, enzymes, malic, citric, quinic and other fruit acids, actinidine.
The use of kiwi helps to strengthen the immune system, the production of collagen, the normalization of blood pressure, the prevention of the formation of nitrosamines and blood clots in the arteries. It is recommended for increased nervousness, digestive problems, rheumatic diseases, kidney stones, to improve physical performance, heart disease. And also the fruits of this plant promotes the work of the stomach, gallbladder, small and large intestine, urinary bladder, reproductive system, genital muscles. Kiwi has antioxidant and antimutagenic properties and burns fats.
In cooking, kiwi is used for making cakes, pies, rolls, salads, jams, pizza, syrup, pastries, croutons, mousse, marmalade, flan, fondue, sauces, cream, confiture, ice cream, yogurt, punch, when baking meat, kebabs and etc.
An evergreen shrub of the Lingonberry family, which is distinguished by low thin shoots and red globular berries with a sour-bitter taste.
Cranberries are widespread in different countries of the world in which there is a lot of swampy forest soil, sedge-sphagnum, tundra or moss bogs. Here is a small list of such countries: Russia (including the Far East), our country, some European countries, Canada and the United States.
Cranberries are a low-calorie product, as there are only 100 kcal per 26 grams of berries. Its berries contain vitamin C, citric, quinic and benzoic acid, vitamins of groups K, B and PP, sugar, essential oil, carotene, pectin and tannins, calcium salt, potassium, phosphorus, iodine, iron, magnesium, copper, boron, cobalt, manganese, etc.
Eating cranberries prevents “bad” cholesterol, increases the elasticity and strength of blood vessels, promotes the absorption of vitamin C, improves memory, and soothes the nerves. Due to their medicinal properties, cranberries are recommended for diseases such as: tonsillitis, flu, colds; rheumatism; avitaminosis; frequent stress, chronic fatigue and headaches; insomnia; tuberculosis; atherosclerosis and diseases of the cardiovascular system; purulent wounds, ulcers and burns on the skin; caries and periodontal disease; genitourinary infections.
Usually cranberries are eaten fresh or frozen, and they can also be dried and soaked, used for making juices, fruit drinks, preserves, jellies, jelly, cocktails and kvass, added to pies, salads and other dishes.
It belongs to the early winter varieties and is distinguished by a vigorous, large tree with a spherical crown. Antonovka fruits are medium, oval-conical or flat-round in shape with a faceted or ribbed greenish surface, with a characteristic odor and sour taste.
It is noteworthy that the pedigree of the “Antonovka” could not be established in the same way as it was created by means of folk selection. In the countries of Eastern Europe, this apple variety became widespread in the second half of the twentieth century and is currently widely represented by subspecies in Belarus, central Russia and the Volga region, in the northern regions of our country. Among its popular varieties are: “white”, “gray”, “onion”, “sweet”, “flat”, “ribbed”, “striped” and “glassy” Antonovka.
Antonovka, like all apples, is a low-calorie fruit – 47 kcal per hundred grams. The fruits of this variety contain fiber, organic acids, potassium, sodium, calcium, vitamins B3, A, B1, PP, C, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, iodine and 80% water. Among its useful properties, the ability to normalize digestion, reduce cholesterol levels, prevent the development of atherosclerosis, support the immune system, produce a cleansing and disinfectant effect on the body, strengthen the nervous system, and stimulate brain activity. It is recommended to eat apples during the treatment of hypovitaminosis, diabetes mellitus, to prevent the development of cancer, with neuroses.
Most often, apples are eaten raw, but they can be pickled, salted, baked, dried, added to salads, desserts, sauces, main courses, drinks and other culinary masterpieces.
Belongs to the Lokhovye family and can grow as a shrub or a small tree with “spiked” branches and narrow green leaves. It is widespread in Moldova, Russia, our country and the Caucasus.
The fruits of the sea buckthorn are small in size, oval in shape with an orange-red or orange-yellow color, literally “stick around” the branches of the plant. The berries have a pleasant sweet and sour taste, a peculiar and unique aroma of pineapple. They contain vitamins B1, C, B2, K, E, P, flavonoids, folic acid, carotenoids, betaine, choline, coumarin, organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric and caffeic acids), tannins, magnesium, sodium, silicon , iron, aluminum, nickel, lead, strontium, molybdenum, and manganese.
Thanks to this “cocktail” of useful components, sea buckthorn is recommended for strengthening blood vessels, improving metabolism, reducing the risk of blood clots, antioxidant effects on the body, healing ulcers, burns and skin wounds. Berries are included in medical nutrition for diseases of the blood and cardiovascular system, peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, vitamin deficiencies, arthritis, radiation damage to the mucous membranes of the eyes and skin.
In cooking, jam, compotes, jelly, marshmallow, jelly, butter, juice, ice cream are most often prepared from sea buckthorn berries.
This is partially or completely processed wheat, which, during the production process, is freed from fruit and seed coats, embryos and polished. It should be noted that even in biblical times, this porridge was one of the main dishes on the table among the inhabitants of Galilee. In Russia, the grain of wheat has always symbolized abundance and prosperity, so wheat porridge for the Slavs has become an obligatory food product.
For the production of this cereal, durum wheat with a high gluten content (for example, the Durum variety) is used. Its composition includes such useful substances as: starch, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, protein, fiber, vegetable fats, trace elements (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium), vitamin PP, B1, C, B2, E, B6.
High-quality wheat groats are distinguished by a high percentage of good-quality grain kernels, uniform consistency, high calorie content (325 kcal per 100 grams of product) and easy digestibility.
This type of cereal has a general strengthening, immunostimulating properties, belongs to the category of foods “natural source of energy”, regulates fat metabolism and improves the digestive tract, lowers cholesterol, slows down the aging of the body, improves the condition of hair, nails, skin. Its use improves the activity of the cardiovascular system and the brain, removes heavy metals, salt, antibiotic residues and toxic substances from the body.
Wheat flour is used to prepare dishes for baby and diet food (for example, soups, meatballs, puddings and casseroles).
It belongs to perennial herbaceous plants of the genus Rubus of the Pink family, it is distinguished by a branchy creeping rhizome, an erect stem, white flowers and wrinkled, heart-shaped leaves. Cloudberry fruit is a composite drupe, reddish when formed, and amber-yellow, after ripening, color, which has a wine, sour-spicy taste.
Cloudberry is widespread in Siberia, Sakhalin and Kamchatka; it prefers the polar-arctic, tundra, forest-tundra and forest zones.
Cloudberry fruits are rich in magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, aluminum, phosphorus, cobalt, silicon, vitamins B3, PP, B1, C, A, proteins, sugar, pectin substances, fiber, organic acids (namely: ascorbic, citric, malic , salicylic acid), anthocyanins, carotenoids, tannins, phytoncides, leukocyanins, leukoanthocyanins, tocopherols.
Cloudberry seeds contain such natural active ingredients as: antioxidants, omega fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linoleic acids, plant sterols.
The use of cloudberries helps to transport hydrogen, maintain the colloidal state of the intercellular substance, normalize capillary permeability, rejuvenate the cell population, accelerate the regeneration of damaged cells, and tissue metabolism. It is recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular and oncological diseases.
For food, cloudberries are eaten fresh, pickled or soaked. In addition, you can make jelly, compote, jam, liqueur, wine and juice from them.
This is a marine fish, which belongs to the order Perchiformes and is distinguished by the presence of two lateral lines on its long body, cycloid scales, and a small and flattened mouth. There are about 30 species of notothenia in the world, which mainly live in Antarctic and subantarctic waters. The most famous of these is marbled notothenia, which looks very much like a cod with characteristic spots on the body, which causes confusion in the scientific classification of fish.
Notothenia meat is a product with an average calorie content (100 kcal per 148 grams), which is distinguished by the presence of such useful substances as: easily digestible proteins, fish oil, vitamins PP, D, A, C, cobalamin, folic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, fluorine, chromium, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, iron, sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium.
The use of notothenia contributes to the development of the skeletal system of children, the elderly and pregnant women, the normalization of metabolic processes, the prevention of atherosclerosis and diseases of the cardiovascular system, the normalization of the nervous system, and the improvement of thought processes.
In cooking, due to its high taste qualities of fatty and juicy meat, notothenia is used to prepare various dishes – it is boiled, fried, stewed, smoked.
Freshwater fish, which belongs to the Sturgeon family, is distinguished by its large weight (up to 1 ton) and large size (about 4 meters). Beluga “mega-longevity” – can even reach a hundred years of age. Throughout its life, it goes into rivers for spawning many times and “rolls down” back to the sea. Its habitat is the basins of the Caspian, Black and Azov seas. It should be noted that this species of sturgeon is listed in the Red Book.
From the point of view of fishing, beluga is a valuable fish, as it is distinguished by tasty meat and is a producer of black caviar. Its meat contains 20% of the total mass of easily digestible proteins, amino acids (especially essential methionine), nickel, molybdenum, fluorine, chromium, zinc, calcium chloride, phosphorus, potassium, iron, vitamins A, D, B, niacin equivalent.
In cooking, beluga meat can not only be frozen for good, but also smoked, dried or canned. Beluga caviar is processed in a barrel or in a simple grained way. Vyaziga became a special dish made from beluga, which is very common in the places of its catch. The beluga swim bladder is used to clarify wines and make glue, and the leather is used for shoes.
It should be noted that the population of beluga is catastrophically low, so it is difficult to buy meat or caviar of this fish due to their high cost or low prevalence.
This is a mushroom of the genus Millechniki, which is distinguished by a large, concave, slimy cap with a shaggy edge, white or greenish-brown color and a hollow, thick, short stem. Loves spruce, birch or mixed forests of our country, Belarus and Russia, grows in “proud” solitude or as a whole family. And although they eat milk mushrooms, they are “conditionally” edible and are used only in a salted form.
Milk is the record holder in terms of low calorie content – only 19 kcal per hundred grams. It contains useful substances such as proteins, fats, extractives, ascorbic acid, thiamine and riboflavin. It is recommended to use it for kidney stones and tuberculosis, diabetes, purulent wounds, pulmonary emphysema, urolithiasis.
This is the fat-containing part of the milk that has settled or was industrially distilled through a centrifuge. Depending on the method of processing, they are divided into sterilized and pasteurized.
The cream contains a high percentage of easily digestible fat – up to 35% and many useful substances (vitamin E, A, C, B2, B1, PP B, D, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, zinc, iron, L-tryptophan, lecithin). They are recommended to be used to calm the nervous system, enhance the work of the gonads, with insomnia, depression and poisoning (in some cases).
Cream is used to make all kinds of desserts (cakes, cheesecakes, shortbreads, ice cream, risotto, cream), soups, sauces, fricassee, julienne, mascarpone, Mongolian tea and many other dishes.
Meat of representatives of cattle (heifers, bulls, oxen, gobies and cows). It is distinguished by elasticity, juicy-red in color, has a pleasant smell and a delicate fibrous marble structure, soft veins of its fat are distinguished by a whitish-creamy color.
The following factors affect the quality of beef: the age and sex of the animal, the type of feed, the conditions of its maintenance, the process of maturation of the meat, the stress of the animal before slaughter. Beef varieties differ depending on the part of the carcass from which it is taken. For example, the highest grade of beef is a rump, breast or back, rump, fillet and rump; first grade – flank, shoulder or shoulder parts of the carcass; the second grade is the back or front shank, cut.
Beef contains potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, sulfur, cobalt, vitamins A, E, C, B6, B12, PP, B2, B1, complete proteins.
Eating beef contributes to the absorption of iron, recovery from injuries, the treatment of infectious diseases, burns, and helps to fight fatigue. It is recommended for iron deficiency anemia and high levels of bad cholesterol. Beef liver is good for the treatment of urolithiasis and the prevention of heart attack.
Beef can be used to make cutlets, meat rolls, Uzbek pilaf bakhsh, Greek stifado, meatballs, steak, meat bread, zeppelin, roast, barbecue, stew, beef stroganoff and other culinary masterpieces.
Refers to perennial, wild-growing shrubs of the Pink family. It is distinguished by drooping branches, crescent-shaped sturdy thorns and white or pale pink flowers. The berry-like rose hips have a red-orange color and many hairy achenes.
Some scientists claim that the mountains of the Himalayas and Iran are the birthplace of this plant. In the modern world, dog rose is widespread in all climatic zones, except for deserts, tundra and permafrost.
Raw rose hips are a low-calorie product – only 51 kcal per 100 g. They contain proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, free organic acids, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, chromium, cobalt , vitamins B1, B6, B2, K, PP, E, C, coloring and tannins, riboflavin, carotene, malic and citric acid, phytoncides, sugars, essential oils.
Rosehip is characterized by general strengthening, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, weak diuretic, choleretic and tonic properties, increases the body’s resistance to infections. The use of rose hips helps to cleanse the circulatory system, improve metabolism, enrich the body with vitamins and lower blood pressure. It is recommended for use in scurvy, anemia, diseases of the bladder, kidney and liver, atherosclerosis and many other diseases.
Rosehip berries can be used to make homemade wine, tea, compote, broth, soup, cognac, jam, syrup, tincture, liqueur, marmalade, marshmallow, jam, jelly, pudding, pies, cakes, mashed potatoes, sauces.
It belongs to the evergreen thermophilic trees of the Sumakhovy family. The cashew fruit consists of an “apple” and a cashew nut that is attached to the top of the fruit.
“Apple” cashews are medium in size, pear-shaped and sweet-sour, juicy, fleshy pulp. The apple peel is yellow, red or orange in color. Cashew nuts hide in a hard shell with a scalding organic oil (cardol). Therefore, before extracting a nut, manufacturers give it to heat treatment in order to evaporate this toxic substance.
Cashews began their journey around the world from South America and are now successfully grown in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Vietnam and Thailand.
Cashew nuts are high-calorie foods: raw 100 kcal per 643 grams and fried, respectively – 574 kcal. They contain proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins B2, A, B1, iron, phosphorus, zinc, calcium. They have tonic, antiseptic and antibacterial properties. They are recommended for use in medical nutrition for dystrophy, anemia, metabolic disorders, psoriasis, toothache. And also the use of cashew nuts helps to lower cholesterol levels, strengthens the immune system, and normalizes the work of the cardiovascular system.
In cooking, both cashew apples and nuts are used. Unfortunately, cashew apples are perishable foods, so they are sold only in countries where cashews grow (for example, in India, jams, juices, jellies, alcoholic drinks, compotes are made from them).
Nuts can be eaten raw or fried, added to sauces, salads, pastries and snacks, and butter that is very similar to peanut butter.