Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

The final element in the arrangement of a country house is the roof. Not only the appearance of housing, but also the comfort of living in it depends on what it will be. A private house becomes the hallmark of the owner, speaks of his tastes, preferences, status, financial situation. And he starts his presentation from the roof. Therefore, we will dwell on the types of roofs and consider their individual features, how they differ and how to make the right choice for your home.

To determine the type of roof, it is worth remembering its main functions:

  • ensuring the strength and reliability of the building;
  • protection against: precipitation (rain, snow), wind, ultraviolet radiation, temperature changes, harmful substances (exhaust gases, etc.);
  • keeping warm inside;
  • aesthetic, contributes to changing the image of the house.

The roof is covered with a roof covering, which the owner of the house chooses from the variety of roofs that the modern construction market offers. It is either soft or hard.

For each type of roof, the appropriate material is selected. It can be not only slate, which can lose its appearance due to its fragility, but also Ondulin Smart or Ondulin Tiles, suitable for different roofs. Or Onduvilla, which favorably emphasizes the originality of broken and complex structures. The purchase of the listed roofing materials through an official representative, in a store, will save you from low-quality goods without guarantees.

Roof classification criteria

All roofs are divided into two general types:

1. Flat. With a slope parameter of 3-15 °, which is not enough for snow to slide off. In Russia, it is rarely used in private construction, since in many regions snow lies on the roof for several months.

2. pitched. The slope of the surface is more than 10-15°. It is convenient for removing precipitation from the roof, increases resistance to wind. The shape of a pitched roof is formed by a truss structure or truss. A sparse or solid crate is laid on the rafters, which becomes the basis for the roof, and also gives the structure rigidity. Pitched roofs remain the most common in private homes.

There are some more criteria for classifying roofs:

1. According to the architectural and constructive solution: they are divided into attic and non-attic. Attic roofs are easy to build and allow for repairs without completely replacing the entire old roof. Atticless, otherwise mansard, roofs give the house originality, but reduce the useful internal area of ​​​​the attic space. In addition, the technology and the construction process are very complex and require the involvement of a specialist, an experienced roofing builder, architect.

2. By the value of the slope of the roof slope.

3. According to the material of manufacture.

The general characteristics of pitched structures are:

  • simple removal of precipitation from the roof;
  • high-quality thermal insulation of the house;
  • high resistance to wind and snow loads;
  • the possibility of arranging an additional useful room. This may be an attic or attic, which is used as an additional living space or utility room.
Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Rafter construction

The rafter structure (rafter) is the basis of any roof. It is she who serves as a support for the entire roofing pie.

When designing a frame, it is important to consider the general requirements that it must meet:

  • structural rigidity – the key to the stability and durability of the roof;
  • the lightest possible weight (it is better to use a coniferous tree, not lower than grade 1) – will reduce the impact on the foundation of the house.

According to the type of structures, frames are:

  • layered: the rafters at a certain distance below rest on the Mauerlats, at the top on the racks;
  • hanging: based on Mauerlats on the facades of load-bearing walls;
  • trussed (farms).

Roof slope

It, like the shape of the slope, is selected depending on three conditions:

  • the level of precipitation in the region: a greater slope of the roof slope allows more precipitation to descend;
  • material;
  • design solution: the roof performs not only certain tasks, but also plays a decorative and aesthetic role in the exterior of the house.

Method for calculating the roof slope parameter:

  • the optimal indicator is 20-45 °;
  • 45-60 ° is suitable for regions with snowy winters, reducing glaciation and allowing snow to fall smoothly from the roof of a private house;
  • 9-20 ° are typical for places with strong gusts of wind, in which case it reduces windage;
  • 5-10 ° will be an excellent way out for the southern regions, the roof heats up less.

Flat roof

Typically, a multi-layer flat roof is used in regions with low rainfall, and operation is also common when covering industrial buildings and high-rise buildings. However, modern, hi-tech and minimalism have become more and more popular lately, which gives a second life to a flat type of roof.

Design specifics

There are several types of flat roofs:

  • Operated roof: serves as the basis for the construction of sports fields, terraces, gazebos, lawns, and so on;
  • Unexploited roof: performs only a protective function, not suitable for moving several people, can be made from corrugated board with filling the junction of the sheets with sealant;
  • Inverted roofing: a heat-insulating layer, insulation is laid at the top, and vapor barrier and waterproofing (not roofing felt, but non-woven waterproofing membranes) are hidden under it, directly on concrete – this placement allows you to extend the life of the coating and roof, avoid leaks.

Slope value

The slope of flat roofs is up to 3°.

Roof installation features

When laying a flat roof, it is important to observe at least a minimum slope – for the descent of water and precipitation. Moreover, it is necessary to create it by the correct implementation of the filling of slag or expanded clay, and not just the coating. To protect the roof from water, you can make it breathable – lay a layer of expanded clay or other non-hygroscopic substance in aerators (one per 50 m2 roofs). A flat roof can be made “green” – plant a lawn or even a garden.

Advantages and disadvantages

Despite the rarity of use, flat roofs have advantages:

  • allows you to arrange a platform for recreation, use as a terrace;
  • it is possible to place a greenhouse, a winter garden;
  • you can install a wind generator or other devices that increase the degree of comfort and economic benefits for those living in the house;
  • small area allows you to save on roofing material;
  • provides easy installation and maintenance;
  • she is safe.

The disadvantages of a flat type of roofing determine its low popularity:

  • the building in the form of a standard rectangle is not architecturally expressive, unlike the pitched one;
  • there are increased requirements for roof waterproofing;
  • roofing requires strengthening in regions with an increased amount of snow;
  • the roof accumulates precipitation;
  • correct calculations of the impact on the walls during installation are necessary, otherwise the structure does not withstand, it is deformed.
Examples and photos of roof types and their classification


A shed roof is a rectangular-shaped plane, which is placed at an angle and rests on load-bearing walls of different heights. The difference in height and length of the span creates a slope of the plane. The design of the roof can be complicated, with a combined direction to round off, creating original design solutions. Allows you to profitably use the area of ​​the second floor.

Differs in the absence of a ridge, valleys. The load from snow and exposure to solar ultraviolet occurs evenly, which prolongs the life of the roof, making it durable. At the same time, it is quite budget-friendly.

Shed roof is:

  • ventilated;
  • non-ventilated: does not require special elements for ventilation.

Roof design principles

The design is simple, the construction is fast and cost-effective. It is necessary to take into account such nuances:

  • the difficulty of providing high-quality thermal insulation;
  • ventilation is required.

Slope value

The parameter is determined in the range of 10-60°, 30-35° is considered optimal. This indicator dictates the choice of roofing materials that ensure the convergence of snow. It is possible to use any material, metal tiles, seam roof made of metal or other.

Rafter system options

The frame is used in three types:

  • sliding;
  • layered;
  • hanging
Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Mounting Features

The roof is mounted on a Mauerlat. If a hanging-type frame is mounted, it is necessary to manufacture the truss separately on the ground, then it is necessary to build a roof on it. You need high-quality and well-thought-out insulation, which is laid under a protective coating.

Advantages and disadvantages

Benefits of a pitched roof:

  • relatively low cost;
  • it is possible to complete the floors of a private house without complicated dismantling;
  • almost all roofing materials are suitable;
  • space is used very efficiently;
  • a balcony can be mounted, large panoramic windows;
  • ease of installation of chimneys;
  • simple calculation and installation work;
  • light weight, therefore, relatively small impact on the foundation and walls of the house.

Among the disadvantages of this type of roofing, it is worth mentioning its not very attractive appearance and the need for regular cleaning and cleaning, which is not very practical. Although designers will help to cope with this disadvantage, for example, by connecting multi-level slopes or choosing tiles to cover. It can be used if you need to build a non-residential building: a bathhouse, a barn, a garage.

Gable (gable) roof

A gable roof, otherwise gable or gable, consists of two slopes connected by an edge – a ridge. The most practical and common type in private homes in Russia. For the construction of this type, the use of gables is typical – the side parts of the walls in the form of a triangle. The peaked pediment is called a tong.

There are such types of gable roofs:

  • symmetrical;
  • asymmetrical;
  • broken;
  • multilevel.

Roof design principles

When designing a gable roof, it is necessary to correctly calculate the impact on the roof and the slope parameter, which should take into account the selected roofing material. The project itself is relatively simple and will create a reliable and durable roof with verified data.

Slope angle

The value of this parameter is affected by the amount of precipitation and the strength of wind gusts. The value of the slope determines the indicator of the roof load. There is one for every roof covering.

Rafter system options

The gable frame uses one of the possible designs:

  • layered;
  • hanging
  • combined.

When choosing, the span between the walls from the outside is taken into account. Structural elements – Mauerlat, ridge, puffs and others. Their task is to distribute the load, fix or strengthen individual sections. In some cases, it is possible to equip with metal frame rafters.

Roof installation features

Installation consists in installing beams, erecting battens and laying roofing.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of a gable roof include:

  • the possibility of using the attic of a private house;
  • ensuring effective removal of snow and water;
  • simple and quick installation, simple repair;
  • the ability to create a variety of projects;
  • a wide range of suitable roofing materials, a small amount of waste during installation;
  • low cost.

Disadvantages of the design:

  • during construction, a lot of roofing materials are needed;
  • roof height depends on the span;
  • for a warm attic, additional strengthening of the frame, arrangement of window openings, insulation, heating will be required.

This type of roof is suitable for low-rise country houses, small houses: the larger the house, the larger the roof area, hence the costs and difficulties in installation and maintenance.

Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Hip roof

The hip roof consists of four slopes, of which two are built in the form of a trapezoid, and two in the form of a triangle (hip). Usually tilted at one angle and give the house attractiveness and harmony. At the top of the roof slopes are dormer windows. Eaves with a drainage system do not allow rainwater to flow down the walls, protect them from getting wet.

There are configurations of this type:

  • half hip;
  • tent.
Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Half hip roof

Differs in bevelled corners and end truncated triangles. Often used in regional architecture. It looks attractive and has an attic, suitable for arranging an attic with an open balcony. The edges of the frame are strengthened due to beveled sections, the roof resists the wind better, it is streamlined. The pediment is suitable for placing a window, while the half-hips become the original decor of the house.

Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Tent roof

It is used in houses with a square or rectangle at the base; instead of a ridge, it has a ridge knot – the junction point of the slopes. A hipped roof can consist of 3 or more roof slopes, ideal for houses with a regular polygon base (square foundation). Outwardly, such a roof looks like a pyramid and fits the building in a classical style. It looks good as a coating for agricultural buildings, autonomous garages. Can be used in complex architectural compositions. However, the cost of such pitched roofs is much more than gable types.

Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Design principles

The project requires careful calculations, it is better to involve a specialist. Such nuances will require special attention:

  • each slope is calculated separately;
  • it is required to accurately calculate the length of the rafters and the ridge;
  • pay attention to the area of ​​chimneys and windows;
  • carry out the correct calculation of the load.

The frame and ridge beam must be made of the same material. The project should also include additional elements and everything necessary for the roof.

Slope parameter

The greater the amount of snowfall and wind strength, the greater the slope should be; for a hipped roof type, it is in the range of 5-60 °.

Rafter Options

They include rafter legs and traditional elements that provide roof strength and even pressure distribution.

Roof installation features

Installation requires special attention to thermal insulation and slope joints. At a semi-hip roof, installation is easier than at a hip roof. Reinforcement of rafters is required. The sequence of fastening elements is as follows:

  • mauerlat;
  • wooden beams;
  • racks;
  • slanted legs.

After that, the rest of the components and the crate are placed.

Advantages and disadvantages

Benefits of a hip roof:

  • places of cornice overhangs are not deformed;
  • resistant to strong gusts of wind;
  • allows you to equip the attic with maximum use of space;
  • original design;
  • the roof design provides for an increase in area, which ensures efficient heat transfer;
  • additional overhangs of such a roof protect against precipitation, increasing the period of use.

Roof Disadvantages:

  • complex installation of the roof and laying of roofing materials;
  • the high cost of roofing.

Mansard (broken) roof

A mansard roof is a structure of slopes, consisting in turn of the upper and lower parts. At the top, the angle of inclination is smaller, usually it is 30 °. The lower one has more – about 60 °. Such a roof can be two- or four-pitched. Their fracture increases the usable area, which improves the performance of the attic.

The attic can be of several types:

  • square;
  • rectangle;
  • combination of triangle and square.

Roof design principles

When designing, the following points must be taken into account:

  • roof height must be at least 2,2 m;
  • materials should be light in weight;
  • it is important to consider struts and puffs.

Since such a roof entails the arrangement of an attic in a private house, it must be taken into account that it will have to be insulated and ensure proper air exchange.

Slope angle

The parameter is determined by the height of the attic and must take into account weather indicators and the type of roofing material.

Rafter system options

The frame consists of layered and hanging rafters. The roof structure is very strong due to the fact that it connects the top and bottom beams, rafters and posts into a common truss using horizontal puffs. Sometimes the cross section of the bars can be reduced without depriving the entire roof of strength. Inclined rafters can be made almost vertical.

Mounting Features

Installation involves the manufacture of first one part of the frame, including racks and inclined rafters, and then, by analogy, the rest of the frame. Mounted elements are reinforced with girders. A necessary step is the insulation of the roof.

Advantages and disadvantages

Benefits of a mansard roof:

  • the main plus is the increase in usable area with the same size of the land plot;
  • the volume of air in the attic room increases;
  • a full-fledged floor is formed in the house;
  • availability of roof elements for repair;
  • the simple shape of the roof gives it strength and reliability;
  • reduction of heat loss of the house as a whole;
  • aesthetic appearance.


  • without additional ventilation, condensation forms on the roofing cake;
  • skylights require additional costs.

However, whatever the cost of arranging the attic, they cannot be compared with the cost of building an additional extension or a full-fledged floor.

Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Multi-gable roof

A multi-gable roof is formed by a combination of gable roofs of different sizes, shapes and slopes. Usually these are triangular and trapezoidal planes, sometimes rectangular ones are used. Large areas increase the cost of roofing material and, accordingly, its total weight. It is necessary to purchase stiffeners and valleys. Roofs can be with pointed or hip corners.

Design principles

A pitched roof that is very difficult to design and requires special skills. It should be borne in mind that such a roof looks good on a large house and loses on a small building. Each element of the roof is calculated separately. Experts recommend using lightweight materials and not saving on waterproofing. A difficult design stage is the planning of window openings and drains. The rafters must be of high quality timber.

Rafter system options

The main element of the frame is the Mauerlat, on which the remaining elements of the rafters are attached. A complex structure must evenly distribute the pressure on the walls and foundation.

Mounting Features

The roof frame is very difficult to install, in addition, the roof has specifics: it is necessary to protect the junction of the slopes, the junction of the valleys from moisture. There are many such vulnerable areas, so you need to be very careful during installation and choose the highest quality materials for waterproofing.

Advantages and disadvantages

Benefits of a multi-gable roof:

  • attractive exterior of the roof itself and the house as a whole;
  • the design is very durable and long-term operation;
  • practicality;
  • under the roof you can arrange an additional room.

Disadvantages of this type of roof:

  • a large number of components: coatings, additional elements, and so on;
  • after cutting the roofing – a lot of waste.
Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Conical and domed roofs

Conical and domed roofs have similar characteristics. This is a rounded structure that covers individual elements of the house: verandas, turrets, and so on. The domed roof is considered the most original and beautiful way to design a building. The conical roof gives the whole stone or brick house a resemblance to a medieval castle. Slate slate or ceramic tiles can be used and windows made of transparent or colored polycarbonate.

Such roofs are quite rare, as they are appropriate for round-shaped houses. Conical roofs are complete and incomplete.

Design principles

Often these views are more of an aesthetic part of a building than a functional one. For design, data on the base of the cone and the length of the slope are needed. This gives an understanding of the required amount of materials for construction.

Slope value

The indicators of the height of the cone and the length of the rafter leg will allow you to calculate the roof slope parameter using the tangent formula.

Rafter system options

The frame for conical roofs is used for hanging fan type and layered. Additional elements are used, for example, beams, crates, bars.

Mounting Features

The rafter legs are laid in a fan-like fashion, resting on the girders and the ring element. At the base is a Mauerlat. Further installation is carried out using additional elements in accordance with the instructions. For a roof of this type, the crate is made from flexible PVC pipes, not from boards, as is usually done.

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages of conical roofs:

  • increased strength, resistance to earthquakes;
  • resistance to natural conditions.


  • very difficult installation;
  • there is no usable space under the roof;
  • it is impossible to place windows;
  • high price.
Examples and photos of roof types and their classification

Which roof is better

The choice of the type of roof is influenced not only by the taste and budget of the homeowner, but also by certain factors:

  • location of the house: climatic and geological conditions of a particular area (humidity, temperature, wind strength);
  • architectural solutions: building plan and building geometry;
  • neighborhood factor: how spacious the building site is, whether there are requirements regarding the general appearance of the area and other restrictions;
  • complexity of installation;
  • the impact on the walls and foundation requires careful, correct calculations;
  • the possibility of warming;
  • do you need an attic, an unheated attic for storing things, or is it a chalet-type building where an attic above the ceiling is not required.

To create an organic image, the roof should be designed immediately with the house, taking into account all other parameters. For a roof to be spectacular and original, it does not require a frilly shape or premium roofing material, it is enough that it is harmonious and fits into the overall image of the building. Special building calculators will help you calculate how much you need to buy materials for the roof, the foundation of the stairs. A properly designed and erected roof will last several decades without repair, especially if the building materials used have a long service life. The specialist will tell you the best time for construction – in the summer or in the autumn-spring period.

Roofing roof: types of materials

As a roofing, you can choose different materials depending on the budget, the style of construction and the aesthetic tastes of the owners, the desired color.

Using workable sheeting such as slate for roofs with complex shapes will only increase the material wastage (too many trimmings), so it is best to choose small-piece or flexible coverings, such as Onduvilla or flexible shingles.

Sheet materials are perfect for single-pitched and gable roofs of a simple shape, here you are completely unlimited in choosing the type of coating (Ondulin Smart, Ondulin Tiles, profiled sheet, rebate of various sizes).

For domed and conical roofs, bituminous materials in rolls, bituminous or natural tiles, slate, slate slate are suitable.

An organically selected roof will give your home a personality and allow the household to feel cozy and protected.

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