- general description
- Treatment in mainstream medicine
- Useful foods for cholera
- Dangerous and harmful products
- Information sources
General description of the disease
This is an acute intestinal disease, which is accompanied by damage to the small intestine, electrolyte imbalance, dehydration of the body and, as a result, intoxication of the body. This dangerous quarantine infection can be fatal if not treated promptly.
Cholera usually spreads as an epidemic… This dangerous infection can be viewed as a biological weapon. Every year, up to 4 million cases of infection with this disease are recorded in the world. The most vulnerable in this regard is considered the stratum of the population that lives in unsanitary conditions. Therefore, the main endemic foci are localized in Latin America, southeast Asia and South Africa. The peak incidence occurs in the summer-autumn period.
Initially, India was a hotbed of infection, but in the 19th century, with the development of trade, cholera spread throughout the world. And since then, mankind has been shaken from time to time by outbreaks of cholera. In the early 19th century, during the first pandemic, the death toll of cholera was in the millions. The second pandemic lasted about 20 years and swept Japan, the United States and Europe. The third pandemic is considered the deadliest. British scientists began to investigate the causes of the spread of cholera and develop ways to treat it. Despite this, until the middle of the 20th century, this dangerous infection claimed millions of lives.… Now the disease is not widespread, but outbreaks of cholera are recorded from time to time in developing countries.
The causes of cholera
The cause of the development of cholera is cholera vibrio, which is present in the flora of most bodies of water. But here the number of microorganisms per unit volume of water plays an important role. For infection, at least a million vibrios must be swallowed.
Vibrio cholerae are not resistant to hydrochloric acid, so if a small number of microorganisms enter the stomach, they will die. With low acidity, the number of microorganisms sufficient for infection with cholera is reduced several times. The gastrointestinal tract serves as the gateway for infection, cholera vibrios can get there in the following ways:
- through dirty hands;
- when swallowing water while swimming in reservoirs with contaminated water;
- when eating unwashed fruits and vegetables;
- upon contact with an infected person;
- when eating seafood (mussels, shrimps) and dried fish that have not undergone proper heat treatment
This dangerous infection affects both adults and children, usually during the warmer months. It can take from 10 hours to 5 days between the ingestion of Vibrio cholerae and before the first symptoms appear, but usually the incubation period lasts 2-3 days.
Depending on the clinical symptoms, cholera is classified into:
- 1 erased form – it is characterized by a single bowel movement with normal health. Then the symptoms become more pronounced – there is an urge to defecate, patients complain of loose watery stools and discomfort in the abdomen;
- 2 easy form – loose stools are characteristic up to 5 times a day, the disease lasts no more than 2 days, while the patient’s well-being is quite satisfactory, he is slightly worried about fatigue and thirst;
- 3 cholera moderate severity, in some sources it is also called dehydration of the 2nd degree. With this form of the disease, cholera progresses rapidly, in addition to frequent bowel movements, the patient is worried about vomiting, which is not accompanied by nausea. There are obvious signs of dehydration of the body, such as unbearable thirst, the turgor of the skin decreases, the mucous membranes become pale, the amount of urine decreases significantly. In this case, liquid bowel movements are observed up to 10 times a day, cramps of the arms and legs, moderate tachycardia and hoarseness of the voice are possible. Cholera in this form lasts about 5 days;
- 4 severe form or the 3rd degree of dehydration is characterized by severe severe symptoms: repeated loose stools and vomiting. Convulsions in the abdomen and limbs, the voice becomes weak, barely audible. The skin of the feet and palms takes on a wrinkled appearance, facial features sharpen on the face: the eyeballs fall in, cyanosis of the earlobes and lips is observed. Tachycardia reaches 120 beats per minute. Pulse is threadlike, blood pressure decreases;
- 5 very severe form characterizes the rapid development of cholera, which begins immediately with continuous vomiting and loose stools. Literally in a few hours, the patient’s body temperature drops to 35 degrees. There is severe weakness, shortness of breath and anuria, drowsiness can develop into a coma. The skin becomes ashy, the body is constantly cramping, the stomach is pulled in, the look becomes unblinking.
Complications of cholera
In severe cases, the development of specific complications is possible:
- cholera typhoid manifests itself in the form of diphtheria colitis, while rashes are possible on the skin, as in measles;
- chlorohydropenic uremia, which is usually accompanied by renal failure.
Nonspecific complications in cholera arise when a secondary infection is attached. Most often, cholera is complicated by focal pneumonia. If a large amount of fluid is lost, hypovolemic shock may occur.
With untimely therapy, cholera has a high percentage of deaths
The transferred cholera does not leave immunity, therefore, re-infection is possible. The main preventive measures include:
- drink only purified or boiled water;
- do not swim in dirty or unfamiliar waters;
- wash your hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before preparing food;
- vaccination of people in outbreaks of cholera;
- disseminate information among the population about the location of emergency medical aid points in places of outbreak of the disease;
- carrying out activities aimed at disseminating materials on cholera prevention;
- when pockets of cholera are detected, promptly and immediately respond with a multisectoral response.
Cholera treatment in official medicine
Cholera can be quickly cured with a timely visit to a doctor. On the first day, to compensate for the large loss of water, patients are prescribed up to 6 liters of oral rehydration salts. For severe patients, in order to avoid dehydration shock, intravenous infusions are prescribed at the rate of 1 liter per 10 kg of the patient’s weight. Antimicrobial agents are sometimes used to combat diarrhea. Also enterosorbents are successfully used in therapy.
Useful foods for cholera
A cholera patient with diarrhea and vomiting loses a lot of water, trace elements, vitamins and protein, so nutrition should be aimed at:
- 1 stimulation of the body’s defenses;
- 2 removal of symptoms of intoxication;
- 3 reducing the load on the digestive tract;
- 4 compensation for metabolic disorders.
In the first 1-2 days of illness, fasting and drinking plenty of fluids are indicated. Recommended compotes from apples and pears, black currant juice, a decoction of dried rose hips, which are distinguished by an astringent effect.
After stool normalization, an apple diet is shown, you should eat 1-1,5 kg of grated green apples without a peel in 5-6 doses during the day. The next day, you can add foods that do not irritate the intestines to the diet: semolina, rice or oatmeal boiled in water, grated cottage cheese, low-fat dairy products, freshly squeezed juices, berry jellies.
Then, as the patient recovers, the patient’s diet is expanded with boiled fish, meatballs and steamed cutlets, mashed cereals, low-fat and mild cheeses. Food should be warm, food fractional and frequent.
Folk remedies for the treatment of cholera
- drink warm milk infused with dill seeds;
- Pour 300 g of birch buds with ½ l of vodka, take 30 g each until vomiting stops;
- drink during the day like tea infusion of dill, mint and chamomile;
- ancient healers believed that a red woolen belt on the belly could protect against cholera infection;
- it is possible to relieve convulsions with severe dehydration on the first day by rubbing the patient’s limbs with camphor alcohol;
- to recuperate the patient can be given red dry wine in small portions;
- drink several glasses of decoction of dry chicory herb during the day;
- Dissolve birch coals in water and let the patient drink in small sips.
Dangerous and harmful foods for cholera
It is necessary to exclude stimulants of the secretory function of the stomach and the gastrointestinal tract as a whole from the patient’s diet, as well as products with cholesterol, therefore, abandon:
- vegetables and fruits as sources of fiber;
- garlic and onions;
- legumes, except for asparagus beans;
- sour berries and fruits;
- meat and fish broths;
- minimize salt intake;
- limit the use of egg yolks;
- pure milk;
- canned and pickled foods;
- rich pastries;
- fried and fatty foods;
- Herbalist: golden recipes for traditional medicine / Comp. A. Markov. – M .: Eksmo; Forum, 2007 .– 928 p.
- Popov A.P. Herbal textbook. Treatment with medicinal herbs. – LLC “U-Factoria”. Yekaterinburg: 1999.— 560 p., Ill.
- Geographic Information Systems, source
- Cholera, source
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The administration is not responsible for any attempt to use the information provided, and does not guarantee that it will not harm you personally. The materials cannot be used to prescribe treatment and make a diagnosis. Always consult your specialist doctor!