Since ancient times, it has been very important for a person to be able not only to harvest, but also to preserve it. After all, this was a guarantee of the preservation of life itself. So man learned to dry and dry, smoke and freeze. And later – salt and ferment. How to keep food fresh for years has become known only recently.
The whole world owes the invention of a method of conservation to the French chef François Apper, who skillfully used the knowledge of two scientists about the origin of microbes. Having sealed the jar of food tightly, after 8 months, François discovered an appetizing look of his canned food, for which he received a gold medal from the French industry of the 19th century, and was also awarded the honorary title “Benefactor of Humanity”. Since then, canning has taken pride of place among other ways to preserve food for a long time.
For canning vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini), it is necessary to prepare glass jars of the required size. For this purpose, liter and three-liter cans are most often used. Two pots of water are placed on the fire, a special ring with a hole for the neck of the jar is placed on top of one of them, the other is intended for making brine.
After the water in the first pot has boiled, sterilization can begin. The preservation jar is inserted into the hole of the ring with the neck down. Thus, the can is sterilized for about ten minutes, then the next one is placed, and so on.
Vegetables intended for conservation and spices (cherry leaves, black and allspice peppers, horseradish, bay leaves, dill, tarragon or amaranth – for strength) are placed in prepared jars. Salt and a little vinegar are added to the second pan. After boiling, pour vegetables in jars with brine. Leave for 10 minutes. At this time, they put rubber bands on the lids for cans and put them in a small pot of water for boiling.
Then the brine from the cans is poured back into the pan using special lids with holes. The brine is brought to a boil and the vegetables are poured back into the jars. Banks are rolled up and placed upside down. After cooling down, the jars can be turned over.
The process is similar to preserving vegetables. The only difference is that after sterilizing the container and placing the fruit there, the contents of the cans are poured with boiling water with the addition of sugar and a small amount of citric acid to prevent spoilage of the canned food. All other steps in the fruit preservation process are identical to the preparation of vegetables.
There are many ways to make jam. It is usually boiled with a low boil, adding a certain amount of sugar according to the recipe. Delicate berries are boiled once, and harder berries and fruits are boiled 2 times with an interval of 1-3 hours. After the jam has boiled for 20-30 minutes, it should be checked for readiness.
Signs of jam readiness:
- A drop of jam left on a cold saucer should not spread. The syrup should drain from the spoon in a thick stream.
- The boiling point of the finished jam reaches 106,5 degrees Celsius.
- When shaking the container with jam, the foams do not disperse at the edges, but collect towards the center of the basin.
- In the jam, the berries do not float to the surface, but are evenly distributed in the syrup.
Preservation of jam:
Jam is poured into pre-prepared jars and rolled up with lids. The jars are turned over with the lids down, until they cool.
The fish is cut into small pieces, fried, placed in pre-sterilized jars. Pour in tomato juice or vegetable oil, add salt, spices, close with metal lids and put in a pressure cooker with a little water at the bottom (about 4-5 centimeters). After 30 – 60 minutes, depending on the type of fish and the strength of its bones, the pressure cooker is turned off. At the same time, the bones in fish should be as soft as in industrial canned food. The canned food is rolled up and turned over with the lids down.
In a pressure cooker, meat is cooked according to a stew recipe. Then the meat is placed in pre-steamed, sterilized jars. Then they act according to the above method for canned fish. Cooking time in a pressure cooker is from 1,5 to 2 hours, depending on the hardness of the meat and bones.
The beneficial properties of canned food
Canned vegetables and fruits, when cooked properly, are delicious and flavorful. Canned fish retains all useful fatty acids, which means it is not only tasty, but also nutritious. And stew has a high nutritional value and is easily absorbed by the body.
As for jam, for many sweet lovers, this is a great treat that can successfully replace sweets and chocolate. Plus, it’s safe to say that homemade jam is a healthier product than most supermarket sweets.
In addition, canned food is very helpful when there is a shortage of time, they are indispensable on trips, they help out collective farmers in times of poor harvest, they are an excellent help for any housewife, allowing them to diversify the food of the whole family. And also canned food is an excellent contribution to the family budget.
Dangerous properties of canned food
Firstly, after canning, a minimum amount of vitamins remains in the foods.
Secondly, with poor-quality cleaning of vegetables and fruits from the ground, as well as improper canning and storage of canned meat, there is a risk of contamination of foods with botulism spores, which develop in canned food for about three to four months. People infected with botulism are immediately hospitalized.
Thirdly, canned food contains a lot of salt and sugar. That in the first case, with abuse, it can lead to hypertension, and in the second case – to a lack of calcium in the body, with all the ensuing consequences; as well as problems with the pancreas and the accumulation of excess weight.