Vitamin B (group)

When we talk about the B complex, we mean a group of water-soluble substances that are present together or separately in many food sources. They support metabolism by acting as coenzymes and converting protein and carbohydrates into energy. These vitamins support skin and muscle tone, nervous system function and cell growth.


What is called the group of B vitamins?

To date, the complex of B vitamins includes 12 interconnected water-soluble substances. Eight of these are considered essential vitamins and should be included in the diet:

  • ;
  • ;
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  • B5 (pantothenic acid);
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  • B7 (biotin, or vitamin H);
  • ;
  • .

Vitamin-like substances

It is easy to see that in the group of vitamins B, the vitamin numbers have gaps – namely, there are no vitamins,, B10 and B11. These substances exist, and they were once also considered B complex vitamins. Later it was found that these organic compounds are either produced by the body itself, or are not vital (it is these qualities that determine vitamins). Thus, they began to be called pseudovitamins, or vitamin-like substances. They are not included in the complex of B vitamins.


Choline (B4) – a necessary component of nutrition for animals, a small amount of this substance is produced in the human body. It was first isolated in 1865 from bovine and porcine gallbladders and was named neurin. It helps in the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and also plays a role in fat metabolism. Choline is found in some foods – milk, eggs, liver, salmon, and peanuts. In a healthy body, choline is produced on its own. Scientists are currently considering the need for choline as a supplement, as there is a perception that there is not enough choline produced in the body. In 1998 it was recognized as a necessary substance.

Inositol (B8) – a substance important for the transmission of signals to cells, the hormonal response of the body, the growth and functioning of nerves. Inositol is freely produced by the human body from glucose and is found in many tissues of the body. Despite this, it is also used in medicine to treat certain diseases. Inositol is widely used in industry.

Para-aminobenzoic acid (B10) – a widespread in nature substance necessary for the growth of rats and poultry. It was first discovered as a remedy for hair depigmentation in laboratory mice. Today it is believed that this compound is not a necessary factor for the human body.

Pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid (B11) – a substance that consists of several components and is considered one of the forms of folic acid. There is little information about this compound. It is believed to be a growth factor for chicks.

History of discovery

Once upon a time, “vitamin B” was considered a single nutrient. Researchers later discovered that the extracts contained several vitamins, which were given distinctive names in the form of numbers. The missing numbers, such as B4 or B8, are either not vitamins (although they were considered such when they were discovered), or are duplicates of other substances.


Vitamin B1 was discovered in the 1890s by the Dutch military doctor Christian Aikman, who was trying to find out which microorganism causes beriberi disease. Aikman noticed that animals fed unpolished rice showed no signs of illness, unlike those fed rice without husks. The reason for this was the presence in the unpolished grains of a substance known today as thiamine.

Riboflavin, or vitamin B2was the second found vitamin in the complex. It was found in milk as a yellow-green fluorescent pigment needed for the growth of rats. In the early 1930s, this pigment was named riboflavin.

Niacin, or vitamin B3, was identified in 1915 when doctors concluded that a deficiency leads to pellagra disease. Austrian-American physician Joseph Goldberger learned from experiments with inmates in a Mississippi prison that the missing factor is present in meat and milk, but absent in corn. The chemical structure of niacin was discovered in 1937 by Konrad Arnold Elvey.


Doctor R. Williams discovered vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) in 1933 when studying the nutritional properties of yeast. Pantothenic acid is found in meats, vegetables, grains, eggs, and many other foods. Vitamin B5 is a precursor of coenzyme A, with its function in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

Vitamin B6 was discovered in 1934 by the Hungarian scientist Paul Györgyi, who was conducting research on skin diseases in rats. By 1938, vitamin B6 was isolated, and in 1939 it was named pyridoxine. Finally, in 1957, the required levels of vitamin B6 in the body were determined.

In 1901, scientists discovered that yeast requires a special growth factor, which they called a biosome. Over the next 30 years, bios turned out to be a mixture of essential factors, one of which is biotin or vitamin B7… Finally, in 1931, scientist Paul György isolated biotin in the liver and named it vitamin H – where H is short for Haut und Haar, the German words for skin and hair. Biotin was isolated in 1935.


Despite the great progress that could have led to its discovery in the early 1930s, vitamin B9 was officially opened only in 1941 by Henry Mitchell. Also isolated in 1941. Folic acid’s name comes from “folium”, which is the Latin word for leaves because it was first isolated from. It wasn’t until the 1960s that scientists linked vitamin B9 deficiency to birth defects.

Vitamin B12 was discovered in 1926 by George Richard Minot and William Perry Murphy, who found that consuming large amounts of liver regenerates red blood cells in patients with pernicious (inability to produce enough red blood cells). In 1934, both scientists, as well as George Whipple, received the Nobel Prize for their work in the treatment of pernicious anemia. Vitamin B12 was not officially isolated until 1948.

Foods with the maximum content of B vitamins

Indicated approximate availability in 100 g of product

B1 (Thiamine)Low-fat pork0.989 mg
Peanut0.64 mg
Whole Grain Flour0.502 mg
Soya beans0.435 mg
Green pea0.266 mg
Tuna0.251 mg
Almonds0.205 mg
Asparagus0.141 mg
Salmon0.132 mg
Sunflower seeds0.106 mg
B2 (Riboflavin)Beef liver (raw)2.755 mg
Almonds1.138 mg
Egg0.457 mg
mushrooms0.402 mg
Mutton0.23 mg
Spinach0.189 mg
Soya beans0.175 mg
Milk0.169 mg
Whole Grain Flour0.165 mg
Natural yoghurt0.142 mg
B3 (Niacin)Chicken breast14.782 mg
beef liver13.175 mg
Peanut12.066 mg
Tuna8.654 mg
Beef (stew)8.559 mg
Turkey meat8.1 mg
Sunflower seeds7.042 mg
mushrooms3.607 mg
Green pea2.09 mg
Avocado1.738 mg
B5 (Pantothenic Acid)Sunflower seeds7.042 mg
Chicken liver6.668 mg
Sun-dried tomatoes2.087 mg
mushrooms1.497 mg
Avocado1.389 mg
Salmon1.070 mg
Corn0.717 mg
Cauliflower0.667 mg
Broccoli0.573 mg
Natural yoghurt0.389 mg
B6 (Pyridoxine)Fistashki1.700 mg
Sunflower seeds0.804 mg
Sesame0.790 mg
Molasses0.67 mg
Turkey meat0.652 mg
Chicken breast0.640 mg
Beef (stew)0.604 mg
Bar beans (pinto)0.474 mg
Tuna0.455 mg
Avocado0.257 mg
B7 (Biotin)Beef liver, ready-made40,5 μg
Egg (whole)20 μg
Almonds4.4 μg
Yeast2 μg
Hard cheese Cheddar1.42 μg
Avocado0.97 μg
Broccoli0.94 μg
Raspberry0.17 μg
Cauliflower0.15 μg
Whole wheat bread0.06 μg
B9 (Folic acid)Chick-pea557 μg
Bar beans (pinto)525 μg
Lentil479 μg
Leek366 μg
beef liver290 μg
Spinach194 μg
Beetroot109 μg
Avocado81 μg
Broccoli63 μg
Asparagus52 μg
B12 (Cobalamin)Beef liver, fried83.13 μg
Beef liver, braised70.58 μg
Beef liver, raw59.3 μg
Chicken liver, raw16.58 μg
Mussels, raw12 μg
Shellfish11.28 μg
Tuna, raw9.43 μg
Sardines, canned food in oil8.94 μg
Atlantic mackerel, raw8.71 μg
Rabbit7.16 μg

Daily requirement for B vitamins

Each component of the vitamin complex has a unique structure and performs specific functions in the human body. Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and biotin are involved in various aspects of energy production, vitamin B6 is required for metabolism, and vitamin B12 and folic acid are involved in the preparation of cell division. Each of the vitamins also has many additional functions. Several B vitamins are involved in some body processes at the same time, such as vitamin B12 and folic acid. However, there is no single process that requires all the B vitamins together. As a rule, B vitamins are relatively easy to obtain from regular foods. Only in some cases is it necessary to introduce synthetic additives into food (for example, vitamin B12, contained only in animal foods, should be consumed by vegetarians and vegans from other, synthetic, sources).

The daily allowance for each B vitamin varies from a few micrograms to a few milligrams. On a day, the body should receive:

  • vitamin B1 (thiamine) – from 0,80 mg to 1,41 mg per day for adults, and from 0,30 mg to 1,4 mg per day for children, depending on the level of daily activity – the more active the lifestyle, the more thiamine the body needs;
  • vitamin B2 (riboflavin) – 1,3 mg per day for men over 14 years old, 1,1 mg per day for women over 14 years old (1,4 mg during pregnancy and 1,6 mg during lactation), 0,3 mg per day for newborns, 0,4 – 0,6 mg for children, 0,9 mg per day for adolescents from 9 to 13 years old;
  • vitamin B3 (niacin) – 5 mg per day for infants, 9 mg for children 1 to 3 years old, 11 mg for children 4-6 years old, 13 mg for children 7-10 years old, 14-15 mg for adolescents under 14 years old, 14 mg for women from 15 years old, 18 mg for men from 15 years old;
  • vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) – On average, 2 to 4 mg per day for children, 5 mg per day for adults, 7 mg during pregnancy and lactation;
  • vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) – on average 0,5 mg per day for children, 1 mg per day for adolescents 9-13 years old, for adults – 1,3 mg per day with an increase in the dose to 2,0 mg during pregnancy and lactation;
  • Vitamin B7 (biotin) – 5 to 8 mcg per day for children under 4 years old, 12 mcg per day for children from 9 to 13 years old, 20 mcg per day for adolescents from 9 to 13 years old, 25 mcg for adolescents from 14 to 18 years old, 30 mcg for adults … With lactation, the rate increases to 35 mcg per day;
  • vitamin B9 (folic acid) – 65-80 mcg per day for babies, 150 mcg for children from 1 to 3 years old, 200 mcg per day for children from 4 to 8 years old, 300 mcg for adolescents from 9 to 13 years old, 400 mcg for adults and adolescents from 14 years old. During pregnancy, the rate rises to 600 mcg, with lactation – 500 mcg;
  • vitamin B12 (cobalamin) – 0,5 – 0,7 μg per day for children under 3 years old, 1 μg per day for children under 10 years old, 1.3 μg for children from 11 to 14 years old, 1,4 μg for adolescents from 14 years old and adults. Pregnant women are advised to consume 1,6 mcg of vitamin per day, lactating – 1,9 mcg.

The need for B vitamins increases with the following factors:

  • elderly age;
  • strict vegan diet;
  • frequent lean diet;
  • smoking, frequent drinking;
  • surgical removal of sections of the digestive tract;
  • taking certain medications – corticosteroids, antidepressants, birth control and other medications;
  • pregnancy and lactation;
  • increased physical activity;
  • sickle cell anemia;
  • chemotherapy.

Chemical and physical properties

Numerous components of the complex of B vitamins are not related to each other either chemically or physiologically, but they still have several common features:

  1. 1 all of them, with the exception of lipoic acid, are water-soluble;
  2. 2 most, if not all, are coenzymes and play a vital role in metabolism;
  3. 3 most of them can be obtained from one source – or;
  4. 4 most of them can be synthesized by intestinal bacteria.

thiamine is a white crystalline substance, readily soluble in water, slightly in ethyl alcohol, but insoluble in ether and chloroform. Its smell resembles that of yeast. Thiamine breaks down at elevated temperatures if the pH is high. It can withstand short boiling up to 100 ° C. Consequently, it is only partially lost during cooking or canning. Prolonged boiling or boiling in alkali destroys it. Stable in acidic environments. Grinding wheat flour significantly reduces the thiamine content, sometimes even up to 80%. Consequently, in many cases, wheat flour is usually synthetically fortified with thiamine.

riboflavin is a bright orange-yellow crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and ethanol, but insoluble in ether and chloroform. Resistant to heat and acids, but readily degrades when exposed to alkalis and light. The aqueous solution has a yellow-green fluorescence. Withstands canning and cooking processes.

Pantothenic acid is a pale yellow viscous oil, soluble in water and ethyl acetate, but insoluble in chloroform. It is resistant to oxidizing and reducing agents, but is destroyed by heating in an acidic and alkaline environment.

niacin is the simplest of all vitamins in existence. It is a white crystalline substance, soluble in ethyl alcohol. Heat resistant. Nicotinamide, a niacin derivative, occurs as white needle-like crystals. It is water soluble and resistant to heat and air. This is why cooking losses are usually minimal. Like thiamine, most of the vitamin B5 is lost during the grinding process.

Vitamin B6 group includes 3 compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. All 3 forms of vitamin B6 are pyridine derivatives, C5H5N and differ from each other in the nature of the substituent at the 4th position of the ring. All 3 forms are easily biologically interchangeable. Pyridoxine is a white crystalline substance and is soluble in water and alcohol, and slightly in fatty solvents. It is sensitive to light and ultraviolet radiation. Resistant to heat in both acidic and alkaline solutions, while pyridoxal and pyridoxamine degrade at high temperatures.

Biotin has an unusual molecular structure. There are two forms of biotin: allobiotin and epibiotin. Biotin and thiamine are the only sulfur-containing vitamins isolated to date. Vitamin B7 crystallizes in the form of long needles. Let’s dissolve in water and ethyl alcohol, but insoluble in chloroform and ether. It is heat resistant and resistant to acids and alkalis. Has a melting point of 230 ° C.

Molecule folic acid consists of 3 units, its molecular formula is C19H19O6N7… The various B9 vitamins differ from each other in the amount of glutamic acid groups present. Folic acid is a yellow crystalline substance, poorly soluble in water and insoluble in fatty solvents. It is resistant to heat only in alkaline or neutral solutions. Loses activity when exposed to sunlight.

Vitamin B12 can only be found in animal foods, animal tissues contain it in varying amounts. Under certain dietary conditions, vitamin B12 can be synthesized by intestinal microorganisms. Cyanocobalamin is unique in that it is synthesized only by microorganisms, especially anaerobic ones. The structure of vitamin B12 is one of the most complex. It is a deep red crystalline substance. Let’s dissolve in water, alcohol and acetone, but not in chloroform. B12 is resistant to heat in neutral solutions, but is destroyed by heat in acidic or alkaline solutions.

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Useful properties of B vitamins

There are many opinions regarding the health benefits of various B vitamins. Thiamine is thought to help maintain well-being in people with a disease that is also associated with low levels of pyridoxine and cobalamin. High doses of niacin, prescribed by your doctor, lower cholesterol and balance lipoproteins. Some evidence suggests that niacin can prevent adolescent (type 1 insulin dependent) in at-risk children by maintaining pancreatic insulin excretion longer than usual. Niacin is also used to relieve intermittent claudication and osteoarthritis, although using high doses for the latter can lead to liver problems. The frequency of migraines can be significantly reduced and the severity reduced through the use of supplemental riboflavin. Pyridoxine is used therapeutically to reduce the risk of heart disease, to relieve nausea during pregnancy, and to relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. When combined with magnesium, pyridoxine may have some beneficial effect on behavior in children. Cobalamin supplementation has been shown to improve male fertility. Depression, dementia, and mental impairment are often associated with deficiencies in both cobalamin and folate. Folic acid can reduce the likelihood of cervical or colon cancer in certain risk groups.

B vitamins play a key role in the formation of DNA, being responsible for the speed of some processes. Severe deficiency of B vitamins can lead to disruptions in the formation of new cells and their uncontrolled growth, which in turn can lead to cancers.

B vitamins, among other substances (such as vitamins C, D, E, fats, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid), are very important for heart health. Especially notable is the role played by folic acid, B6 and B12 in lowering homocysteine ​​levels. Although this has not been officially confirmed by medicine, many studies have found high levels of homocysteine ​​in fat deposits on the endothelium (the thin layer of cells that line the inside of blood vessels), as well as in blood clots and in heart disease.

Psychiatrists are also increasingly turning to B vitamins as a treatment. Together with vitamin C, they help maintain an effective adrenal gland response to stress. Numerous studies show that up to 30 percent of patients hospitalized with depression are deficient in B12. Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between low blood folate levels, vitamins B6 and B12, and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. B-vitamin deficiency is also associated with anxiety disorder and especially obsessive-compulsive disorder. Many doctors are starting to treat OCD with therapeutic doses of the vitamin inositol.

Finally, one cannot fail to note the influence of the level of B vitamins on the amount of energy and vitality. Deficiency often leads to chronic fatigue, increased fatigue, and drowsiness.

Each B vitamin is either a cofactor (usually a coenzyme) for key metabolic processes, or a precursor required to carry them out. These vitamins are water-soluble, that is, they are not deposited in the body’s fatty tissues, but are excreted in the urine. Absorption of B vitamins occurs in the digestive tract and usually requires certain substances (proteins) in the body to allow the vitamins to be absorbed.

Interaction with other elements

All processes in the body are interconnected, so some substances can increase the effectiveness of B vitamins, and some can reduce it.

Fats and proteins reduce the body’s need for vitamin B1, while carbohydrates, on the contrary, increase it. Raw seafood (fish and shellfish) contains an enzyme (thiaminase) that breaks down thiamine in the body. Therefore, people who consume large amounts of these foods may experience symptoms of vitamin B1 deficiency. In addition, thiamine interacts with magnesium; without it, B1 cannot transform into its biologically active form. Riboflavin should not be taken with calcium, which reduces absorption. Niacin works with zinc to provide higher levels of zinc in the liver. Copper increases the body’s need for vitamin B5. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is advised to be used with magnesium, among the positive effects of this combination is the relief of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. A combination of pyridoxine and thiamine, as well as pyridoxine and vitamin B9 is undesirable. Folic acid is undesirable to use with zinc, as well as vitamin B12, since they mutually increase the body’s need for each other. Cobalamin (B12) should not be taken with vitamin C, especially if thiamine and copper are taken at the same time.

The best food combinations for assimilating B vitamins:

  1. 1 Pumpkin pudding with chia seeds. Ingredients: milk, puree, chia seeds, maple syrup, sunflower seeds, almonds, fresh. Contains thiamine, biotin, proteins, fiber and many other beneficial substances.
  2. 2 Quinoa and kale salad. Ingredients: quinoa, fresh kale, red cabbage, dill, boiled eggs, rice vinegar, extra virgin olive oil, black pepper. Contains riboflavin, biotin, folic acid and cobalamin.
  3. 3 Gluten-free salad with quinoa and broccoli. Ingredients: fresh, quinoa, cucumber, cherry tomatoes, pumpkin seeds, sea salt, black pepper, Dijon mustard, vinegar, extra virgin olive oil, maple syrup. Contains thiamine and riboflavin.
  4. 4 Gluten Free Stuffed Quinoa Peppers. Ingredients:, green bell peppers, canned lentils, fresh, feta cheese, frozen corn grains, salt, black pepper. Contains thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic acid, pantothenic acid and cobalamin.

In the absence of medical contraindications, diseases, and ethical preferences, B vitamins are best obtained from food. These vitamins are widespread in many foods and it is easy to find a diet that would replenish the supply of vitamins and would suit everyone’s taste. The exception is vitamin B12, which can only be obtained from animal foods, and therefore, in its natural form, is difficult for vegans to obtain. In this case, under the supervision of a physician, synthetic vitamins are prescribed. In spite of everything, uncontrolled intake of synthetic vitamins can not only not be beneficial, but also harm. Therefore, it is recommended to consult a doctor before taking any vitamins.

Use in official medicine

Due to the fact that each vitamin of group B has its own functions, one or another vitamin is prescribed by a doctor depending on the direct indications.

A complex of B vitamins is prescribed, first of all, with a clear deficiency, insufficient absorption or with a limited diet. Also, I often advise these vitamins to be taken in old age, as well as to people who drink alcohol or smoke. Folic acid is often prescribed during preparation or during pregnancy, as it contributes to the correct development of the fetus. In addition, a complex of B vitamins in the form of medicines is advised to be taken in such cases:

  • to accelerate wound healing;
  • with stomatitis;
  • to improve the physical fitness of athletes;
  • ;
  • with anxiety;
  • as part of complex therapy with;
  • to relieve the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome;
  • with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;
  • for relief of acute pain syndrome.

Currently, B vitamins can be purchased in pharmacies both individually and in the form of a complex. Most often, multivitamins come in pill form. As a rule, such vitamins are taken in courses, on average, for one month. Separately, B vitamins can be found in the form of injections (intravenous and intramuscular) – they are prescribed to improve and accelerate the absorption of substances – and capsules.

The use of B vitamins in traditional medicine

Folk doctors, as in traditional medicine, recognize the importance of the B complex vitamins in energy production, overall body health, and skin, hair and nail health. Ointments containing B vitamins (especially B6) are recommended. Rubs with vitamins B1, B2 and B6 are used for. There are also popular recipes for treating anemia with foods that contain high amounts of vitamin B12. Especially useful is an extract from the liver of a calf, which is rich in vitamins, and the amount of fat and cholesterol is minimal.

Latest scientific research on B vitamins

  • Scientists from the University of Adelaide, Australia, have found that taking vitamin B6 can help people remember their dreams. The study, published online, included 100 Australian participants who took high-vitamin B supplements before bed for five consecutive days. Vitamin B6 had no effect on the brightness, quirkiness, or color of dreams and other aspects. Some of the participants took a placebo drug, while the rest took 240 mg of vitamin B6 just before bedtime. Many subjects, who had rarely remembered their dreams before, admitted that after taking the vitamin, it was easier for them to remember what they dreamed. However, study leaders warn that long-term use of such doses of pyridoxine should be supervised by a healthcare professional.
  • A recent report published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society looks at a case of misdiagnosis due to taking a biotin supplement known as vitamin B7. The patient was taking 5000 mcg of biotin daily, which led to erroneous clinical trials, unnecessary radiography, analyzes, and almost entailed a complex invasive procedure that is prescribed for hypercoagulation. This is because doctors suspected the patient had hypercortisolemia or a tumor that produces testosterone. As it turned out, the primary symptoms were caused by excessive consumption of biotin, which is traditionally considered a vitamin that improves the condition of skin, hair and nails.
  • A review article published in the Journal of the American Institute of Cardiology hypothesizes that vitamin supplementation has no benefit in preventing or treating heart disease. The researchers found that data on the four most commonly used supplements – multivitamins, vitamins D, calcium, and vitamins C – did not show positive results in preventing cardiovascular disease, or that there was no change in mortality rates from all of the above. The only exceptions were folic acid and group B multivitamins, in which folic acid was a component. Vitamin B9 has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke. At the same time, niacin (vitamin B3) and antioxidants have been linked to an increased risk of death from heart disease.

Use of B vitamins in cosmetology

It can be said without a doubt that B vitamins are vital for skin and nails. That is why there are many recipes for masks, decoctions, lotions – both with natural ingredients and with the addition of pharmacy vitamins.

Hair masks, which include B vitamins, are most often positioned as strengthening, restoring and improving pigmentation. The healthiest and most commonly used natural foods containing vitamins are raw eggs and aloe vera juice. Various oils, honey and herbal decoctions are added to them. Thus, a mixture of substances necessary for hair (vitamins B, A and E) is obtained, which has antiseptic, antioxidant and conditioning properties. Such compositions, for example, are a mixture of egg yolk, burdock oil, honey and juice. In addition, you can safely use pharmacy B vitamins in ampoules, adding them to vegetable oil and mixing with decoctions, for example, chamomile or nettle. The most effective pharmacy vitamins for hair are vitamins B1, B3, B6 and B12.

B vitamins are essential. They have regenerative and antioxidant properties. In addition, in combination with other ingredients, they provide additional benefits as a rejuvenating, protective, moisturizing and antibacterial agent. Products used in face masks are egg, banana, spinach, almonds, oatmeal,.

  • An effective recipe is considered a mask, which includes a pinch of sea salt, a pinch of turmeric, a teaspoon of honey, natural yogurt and half a banana in the form of mashed potatoes.
  • For oily skin, a mask with 1 teaspoon of aloe vera juice, 1 teaspoon of chamomile broth, half a teaspoon of lemon or apple cider vinegar, half a mashed banana and 1 teaspoon of starch is recommended.
  • A homemade scrub can be made with 1 teaspoon of honey, 1 teaspoon of oatmeal, a pinch of salt, a pinch of brown sugar, 1 teaspoon or almonds, and 1 teaspoon of kiwi, pineapple, or papaya puree.
  • For aging skin, an antioxidant mask with 1 teaspoon of argan oil, 1 teaspoon of honey, guava puree, 1 teaspoon of sunflower oil and 1 teaspoon of ground may be suitable.

Biotin, vitamins B6 and B12 are very important for the health of nails. It is advised to use almond oil, avocado oil to strengthen the nail plate.

Do not forget that beauty comes first from the inside, and the most important thing is to ensure the access of all vitamins and minerals from food. A healthy body, in which there are enough essential substances, looks beautiful and well-groomed.

The use of B vitamins in animal husbandry

As with human health, B vitamins are vital for animals. They support the normal functioning of the nervous and immune systems, growth and development, energy production, metabolism in cells and organs, as well as healthy appetite and digestion of the animal. All vitamins of the group are indispensable, therefore it is necessary to ensure the access of the whole complex to the body. Typically, commercial animal feed is artificially fortified with vitamins and minerals. Particular attention should be paid to the presence of thiamine in the feed, as it is more susceptible to destruction.

Use of B vitamins in crop production

There are several vitamins that act as plant biostimulants, but the most popular are B1, B2, B3 and B6 due to their positive effects on plant metabolism. Many microorganisms produce B-vitamins as natural by-foods, but yeast extracts contain the highest concentrations. B-vitamins work at the cellular level and are commonly found as additives in cloning gels and cloning solutions, mineral bedding solution, and most commercial plant biostimulants.

One of the best uses for B vitamins is to help plants recover from transplant. When the plant is transplanted, the microscopic root hairs are often damaged, making it difficult to get enough water and minerals. The addition of B-vitamins to the irrigation water gives the plants the boost they need. B-vitamins are also helpful when transplanting from soil to hydroponics. To do this, before transplanting, the plant is immersed in water enriched with B vitamins.

Interesting facts about B vitamins

  • Royal jelly contains enough B vitamins to the extent that it can be taken in the same way as dietary supplements.
  • Thiamine deficiency is commonly found in countries where it is a staple food. In Western countries, it is most often caused by excessive alcohol consumption or a very unbalanced diet.
  • Excessive consumption of raw egg whites, for example by bodybuilders, can interfere with the absorption of biotin and cause it to be deficient.
  • Research shows that people with low folate levels are more prone to hearing loss after age 50.

Dangerous properties of B vitamins, their contraindications and warnings

Deficiency of each of the vitamins of the complex manifests itself in the form of certain symptoms, in each case they may differ. And only a doctor, after conducting special studies, will be able to tell whether you have a deficiency of one or another vitamin. However, there are the most common symptoms of a B vitamin deficiency, including:

  • nervous disorders;
  • visual disturbances;
  • inflammation of the tongue, skin, lips;
  • ;
  • anemia;
  • depression, anxiety, increased fatigue;
  • confusion of consciousness;
  • hair loss;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • slow healing of wounds.

In many cases, large doses of water-soluble vitamins can be taken without side effects since excess amounts are easily excreted from the body. However, if you take more than 500 mg of niacin daily, liver inflammation can develop. Niacin can also make it difficult to control blood sugar levels in diabetics, as well as increase uric acid levels, which will exacerbate. In addition, excess niacin increases gastric acid secretion and lowers blood pressure. However, the form of niacin known as inositol hexaniacinate generally does not produce these effects.

High doses of pyridoxine can cause liver inflammation or permanent nerve damage.

High doses of vitamin B2 can cause discoloration of the urine, this is a normal side effect and is not harmful to the body.

In general, B vitamins are non-toxic and there have been no severe side effects when the daily requirement is exceeded. However, all vitamin preparations should be taken with caution and the attending physician should be consulted about contraindications and interactions with other medications.

Information sources
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  5. National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services,
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  13. The use of B vitamins in the complex therapy of pain syndromes. O. A. Shavlovskaya. Doi: 10.17116 / jnevro201711791118-123
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  15. Denholm J. Aspy, Natasha A. Madden, Paul Delfabbro. Effects of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and a B Complex Preparation on Dreaming and Sleep. DOI: 10.1177/0031512518770326
  16. Heather M Stieglitz, Nichole Korpi-Steiner, Brooke Katzman, Jennifer E Mersereau, Maya Styner. Suspected Testosterone-Producing Tumor in a Patient Taking Biotin Supplements. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 2018; DOI: 10.1210/js.2018-00069.
  17. David J.A. Jenkins, J. David Spence, and others. Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and Treatment. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.04.020
  18. “Why Your Pet’s Heart, Brain and Nervous System May Need Extra B Vitamins, No Matter What Kind of Food You Feed”,
  20. Vitamin B complex. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. Encyclopaedia Britannica,
  21. Listing of vitamins. Harvard Health Publishing. Harvard Medical School,
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