Almost imperceptibly, September flew by with its bustle, bustle, velvet season and regrets about summer vacations. October is on the doorstep, which promises to pamper us with more sunny days and scare the autumn with bad weather, throw foliage and give a lot of vivid impressions from walking in an autumn park or forest.
October is the tenth month of the year that received its Latin name “octo” – eight even before Caesar’s calendar reform – in the old Roman calendar, it was indeed the eighth month. The people associate with him a lot of folk signs, beliefs and were called differently: dirty, podzimnik, wedding.
Nutrition in October should solve two problems – depressed mood and fall colds. Therefore, a rational, properly balanced and organized diet will help us cope with these tasks, and will also contribute to the prevention of many other diseases. It is very important with the onset of cold weather, when the appetite wakes up and the body stores up nutrients before winter, not to get too carried away with high-calorie foods, giving preference to low-calorie dishes with a high level of nutrients.
So, in October, the following foods are recommended.
It is a herbaceous biennial plant from the Cabbage family. The fleshy root vegetable of the turnip and its lush foliage stem grows in the first year, the seed pod in the second. The plant has a smooth yellowish root crop (weighing up to 10 kg and ∅ up to 20 cm).
The homeland of turnip is the territory of Western Asia, where it was known 4 millennia ago. Before the Middle Ages, turnips were considered “food for slaves and the poor,” after which it was already a delicacy for the aristocracy and merchants. Until the twentieth century. this vegetable was analogous to potatoes, but later became “unpopular” and undeservedly forgotten in modern cooking.
Raw turnip contains 9% sugar, vitamin B2, C, B1, B5, PP, provitamin A, sterol, polysaccharides, glucoraphanin, iron, copper, manganese, iodine, zinc, phosphorus, sulfur, herbal antibiotic, cellulose, lysozyme.
The use of turnips helps to cleanse the blood and dissolve stones in the bladder and kidneys, helps the absorption and accumulation of calcium, and delays the development of fungi in the human body. Useful components of turnip stimulate the secretion of bile and the general activity of the liver, support intestinal motility, prevent stagnation of nutrients, lower cholesterol levels, and promote wound healing. Turnip has anti-inflammatory, diuretic, analgesic, laxative and antiseptic properties. Therefore, it is useful for atherosclerosis, diseases of the mucous membranes and skin, diabetes, sore throat, cough, gout and insomnia.
You can cook a great variety of dishes from turnips, ranging from salads, soups and ending with sauces with julienne.
Belongs to biennial plants of root vegetable crops of the Marevye family.
Initially, cultivated beets were grown in the Mediterranean and only the leaves were eaten, not the root vegetable. But the ancient Romans in history distinguished themselves by the fact that they forced the conquered Germanic tribes to pay tribute to Rome with beets. As evidenced by historical written records, it was also grown in Kievan Rus.
Beetroot contains 14% carbohydrates, glucose, fructose, sucrose, pectins, vitamins (B, C, BB), carotenoids, folic, citric, oxalic, malic and pantothenic acid, iron, potassium, manganese, magnesium, iodine, copper, cobalt, phosphorus, sulfur, zinc, rubidium, cesium, chlorine, amino acids (betaine, lysine, betanin, valine, histidine, arginine), fiber.
This root vegetable has a small amount of calories – only 40.
Beetroot has a calming effect, promotes intestinal peristalsis, and soothes inflammation. It is recommended to use it for vitamin deficiency, scurvy, anemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, high blood pressure.
In cooking, both root crops and beet tops are used. They are used to prepare salads, soups, cereals, vegetable stews, sauces, borscht and even sandwiches.
It belongs to perennial herbaceous plants and is distinguished by a furrowed stem (up to 100 cm), a branched short root. The arrow-shaped leaves of sorrel are very succulent and have a sour taste and are best consumed between May and July.
For the first time, documentary mention of sorrel was found in French documents dating back to the XII century. In our country, only recently they began to eat sorrel, before that it was considered a weed. To date, science knows more than 200 species of this plant, but only a few varieties (for example, horse and sour sorrel) have medicinal and nutritional value for humans.
Sorrel is a low-calorie product as it contains only 22 kcal.
The value of sorrel is that it contains carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic, folic, ascorbic and oxalic acid, pyridoxine, niacin, tocopherol, beta-carotene, phylloquinone, biotin, potassium, copper, calcium, sodium magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, iron, manganese, iodine, fluorine, zinc, nitrogenous substances.
Sorrel has antiallergic, astringent, analgesic, antitoxic, anti-inflammatory, antiscorbutic and wound-healing effects. Promotes better digestion, gallbladder and liver function, wound healing, and stops bleeding. It is recommended for cardiovascular diseases, anemia, itching and skin rashes.
Sorrel should be used with caution in case of gout, kidney stones, salt metabolism disorders, inflammatory bowel and kidney diseases, pregnancy, gastritis, duodenal ulcer and stomach ulcer.
In cooking, sorrel is used for salads, soups, borscht, pies and sauces.
Late grape varieties
The grape belongs to the vine-berry crops of the Vinogradov family. In the history of the Earth, it belongs to the most ancient cultivated plants known to mankind. Scientists believe that it was the cultivation of grapes that became a prerequisite for the transition of primitive tribes to a settled life.
Among the most common late grape varieties are: Alphonse Lavalle, Aygezard, Asma Magaracha, Agadai, Brumei Nou, Jura Uzum, Vostok-2, Star, Dniester pink, Isabella, Karaburnu, Italy, Kutuzovsky, Kon-Tiki, Moldavian black, Nimrang Moldova, Olesya, Soviet canteen, Smuglyanka Moldavian, Tair, Chimgan, Shaumyani, Shabash and others.
The grapes contain: succinic, citric, malic, gluconic, oxalic, pantothenic, ascorbic, folic and tartaric acids; pectin substances; manganese, potassium, nickel, magnesium, cobalt, boron, aluminum, chromium, zinc, silicon; riboflavin, Retinol, niacin, thiamine, pyridoxine, phylloquinone, flavonoids; arginine, lysine, methionine, cystine, histidine, leucine, glycine; grape oil; vanillin, lecithin, flobafen.
Grapes and its derivatives are recommended for rickets, anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, gastrointestinal diseases, scurvy, heart disease, exhaustion of the body, chronic bronchitis, hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal diseases, gout, kidney and liver diseases, asthenic conditions, uterine bleeding, loss of strength, insomnia, bronchial asthma and pleurisy, disorders of fat and mineral metabolism, uric acid diathesis, poisoning with morphine, arsenic, strychnine, sodium nitrate, bladder diseases, purulent ulcers and wounds, growth of putrefactive intestinal flora, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus …
Basically, grapes are eaten raw or dried (raisins). And also used for the preparation of compotes, wine, juices, mousses and preserves.
It belongs to the tree-like plants of the Almond or Plum subfamily. Differs in lanceolate leaves with jagged edges and pink or white flowers. The plum fruit is a dense green to dark blue drupe with a large stone.
Asia is considered the homeland of the plum, but now it is successfully cultivated on all continents of the Earth (except Antarctica). Among the main varieties of plums, the following types are distinguished: home plum, blackthorn, blackthorn plum, Ussuri plum and a hybrid of the Sino-American plum.
Plum contains up to 17% fructose, glucose and sucrose, vitamins B1, A, C, B2, P, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, tannins, nitrogenous and pectin substances , malic, citric, oxalic and salicylic acid, 42% fatty oil, coumarins, carotenoids, scopoletin, coumarin derivative, phytoncides.
The use of plums prevents the formation of blood clots, dilates the coronary vessels, enhances intestinal motility, stimulates appetite, normalizes the motor-secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract, and reduces the absorption of cholesterol. It is recommended for atherosclerosis, thrombosis, kidney disease, gout and rheumatism, anemia and cardiovascular diseases, intestinal atony and constipation, kidney disease, hypertension.
Plum is used for making pies, salads, biscuits, jams, cakes, desserts, muffins, confiture, cookies, plum brandy.
Apples are the most common tree plant of the Rosaceae family, native to modern Kazakhstan.
The Champion apple variety belongs to the early winter varieties of Czech selection, it was bred by crossing the varieties Renet Orange Koksa and Golden Delicious (1970).
This variety is distinguished by a high level and regularity of yield, resistance to various diseases. The “Champion” has large, rounded-oval fruits with a red-orange “striped” blush. The apple pulp is of medium density, very aromatic and juicy, with a sweet and sour taste.
This fruit belongs to low-calorie foods – 47 kcal and contains fiber, organic acids, potassium, sodium, calcium, vitamin C, A, B1, PP, B3, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, iodine.
Eating apples helps to lower cholesterol levels, normalize digestion, prevents the development of atherosclerosis, has a supportive, tonic, cleansing and disinfectant effect on the body, stimulates brain activity and strengthens the nervous system. Apples are recommended for vitamin deficiencies, diabetes mellitus, and for the prevention of cancer.
They are eaten raw, baked, pickled, salted, dried, used in desserts, salads, main courses, sauces and drinks.
Belongs to perennial, low, evergreen and branching shrubs of the Vaccinium genus, the Heather family, which reaches a height of 20 cm. Lingonberry is distinguished by leathery, shiny small leaves and white-pink bell-flowers. Lingonberries have a characteristic sweet and sour taste and bright red color.
Lingonberry, as a wild berry, is widespread in the tundra and forest areas of temperate climates. For the first time, they tried to cultivate lingonberries during the reign of the Empress of the Russian Empire Elizabeth Petrovna, who ordered “to find an opportunity to grow lingonberries near St. Petersburg.” They began to grow it en masse in the middle of the twentieth century. in Germany, USA, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Holland, Belarus and Poland.
This berry is a low-calorie product with 46 kcal per 100 grams. It contains carbohydrates, organic acids (malic, salicylic, citric), tannins, carotene, pectin, vitamin E, C, A, glucose, fructose, sucrose, iron, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, phosphorus, benzoic acid. Lingonberry leaves contain arbutin, tannins, tannin, hydroquinone, carboxylic acids, gallic, quinic and tartaric acids.
Lingonberry has wound healing, tonic, antiscorbutic, anthelmintic, antiseptic, antibacterial and antipyretic properties. It is recommended for diabetes, vitamin deficiency, hypoacid gastritis, jaundice, dysentery, neurasthenia, salt deposits, stomach tumors, hepato-cholecystitis, internal and uterine bleeding, rheumatism, pulmonary tuberculosis, hypertension, enteritis.
Fresh lingonberries are used for the preparation of fruit drinks, jelly, juices, preserves, soaked – for meat dishes.
For the production of millet groats (or millet, cultivars of peeled millet are used.
Millet belongs to hypoallergenic cereals, which are easily absorbed by the body, therefore it is recommended for hypersensitivity of digestion. Millet contains: starch, protein, essential amino acids (valine, tretnin, lysine, leucine, histidine), fats, fiber, vitamins B1, PP, B2, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iodine, potassium, bromine and magnesium.
It is believed that millet groats give strength, strengthens the body, has a lipotropic, diuretic and diaphoretic effect, and removes antibodies from the body. It is recommended for the prevention of constipation, the treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, dropsy, damaged and broken bones, for the healing of wounds.
Soups, cereals, pancakes, cereals, millet, reindeer moss, kystyby, cabbage, meatballs are prepared from millet groats. It is also used to stuff pies, poultry and fish.
Or, as it is also called, Far Eastern mullet belongs to schooling semi-anadromous fish of the genus Kefal-liza of the Kefalev family. Initially, the pelengas lived in the Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of Japan, but in the 70s of the twentieth century. was introduced in the Azov-Black Sea basin, where it was successfully acclimatized and now belongs to the varieties of industrial fish.
Pelengas is distinguished by a scaly, spindle-shaped elongated body with speckled longitudinal stripes and a gray-silver color. In the waters of the Azov and Black Seas, it can reach 1,5 m in length and up to 20 kg in weight. Its unique features are euryhaline (the ability to live in fresh and salt water) and the fact that the pelengas is an ameliorator (it feeds on organic silt).
The composition of pelengas meat includes: easily digestible proteins (the level of which rises before spawning), fat, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega-3 (pentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) and Omega-6 (linoleic acid), vitamins A, D, magnesium, iodine , potassium, calcium.
The beneficial substances of pelengas are excellent antioxidants, regulate brain activity, the work of the cardiovascular system, the volume of adipose tissue in the body, prevent the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and immune diseases. During pregnancy, they have a good effect on the correct formation and development of the fetus.
The pelengas has a delicious low-bone white meat, which is sold fresh, frozen and chilled or in the form of canned food. Its head is used for soup sets, while caviar is dried or salted. Pelengas is delicious baked, fried, stewed; fish soup, cutlets and aspic are made from it.
It belongs to the only representatives of the Cod family, which lives in fresh cold waters. It has a long, spindle-shaped body, which tapers towards the tail, covered with thick mucus and small scales, has a “frog” head with a large toothy mouth and antennae. The color of the burbot ranges from olive green to grayish green with characteristic brown stripes and spots. In cold waters (for example, the rivers of Siberia) burbot can reach 1,7 m in length and 32 kg in weight.
Burbot is an industrial fish with valuable meat and liver, which contain potassium, calcium, selenium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, iodine, fluorine, manganese, iron, copper, vitamins A, E, D and B.
Burbot meat is recommended for the prevention of heart attack and stroke, it has a positive effect on brain function, reduces the risk of neurological and cardiovascular diseases, increases immunity, prevents the occurrence of cholesterol plaques, improves skin and teeth condition, and vision. It is also useful for arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis, pregnancy.
Ukha, pies, cutlets, dumplings are prepared from burbot; it is dried, dried, stewed and smoked.
This is a freshwater schooling fish of the Carp family. It is distinguished by its large size, large head and silvery color, and belongs to the valuable commercial fish varieties. Its adults can reach a meter in din and 16 kg in weight. In addition to its nutritional value, silver carp is useful in water purification from phytoplankton and detritus.
Initially, the silver carp habitat was the reservoirs of China, but in the middle of the last century it was artificially bred in the Volga, Dnieper, Prut, Dniester, Kuban, Terek, Don, Syrdarya and Amu Darya.
Silver carp meat contains omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, easily digestible protein, vitamins A, E, B, PP, phosphorus, iron, calcium, sulfur, zinc and sodium.
The inclusion of silver carp in the menu contributes to the prevention of atherosclerosis, the normalization of the peripheral and central nervous system, the improvement of carbohydrate metabolism, the renewal of skin cells, the growth of nails and hair, and the synthesis of hemoglobin. It is recommended for gout, rheumatism, hypertension, diabetes, gastritis.
Silver carp meat is cooked with rice and mushrooms, fish soup, broth, soup and hodgepodge, cutlets are made from it, homemade herring, jellied meat are prepared, stuffed with vegetables and cereals, fried, boiled and baked.
These are mushrooms of the Ryadovkovy family, which are harvested from the end of summer to the first autumn frosts. In the early period of development, the mushroom is distinguished by a convex cap, in the late – a velvety-straightened hat with small scales. And also honey mushrooms have a modest dim light brown color, a pleasant mushroom smell and a film on the leg. They usually grow on old stumps, roots of deciduous and coniferous trees.
The mushrooms contain easily digestible proteins, di- and monosaccharides, vitamins B1, C, B2, PP, E, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, iron.
These mushrooms are recommended for E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, tuberculosis, purulent infections, alcoholism, for the prevention of cancer and the normalization of the thyroid gland.
Honey mushrooms can be fried, boiled, dried, pickled and salted.
According to an old recipe (more than 10 thousand years old) it is prepared from natural goat or sheep (sometimes cow) milk, by fermentation and pressing. Cheese refers to hard pickled cheeses and is very common in the countries of Central Asia and among southern European peoples.
Cheese is rich in nutrients such as vitamins A, PP, C, D, K, niacin, thiamin, phosphorus, riboflavin, calcium, probiotics and is low in calories (100 g of cheese contains 260 kcal) and hypoallergenic product that is suitable for people with lactose intolerance. In addition, feta cheese strengthens the skeleton, helps prevent breast and colon cancer, normalizes blood pressure, prevents migraines, regulates the functions of cell membranes and nerve conduction, maintains the health of the gastrointestinal tract, strengthens the immune system, helps with food digestion and breakdown of calcium molecules. …
Cheese can be added to pasta and salads, used as a filling for pancakes, cheesecakes, pies, puffs, baked with vegetables, sausages, added to soup.
This is the meat of the domestic pig, which is widely used in the cuisines of various nations of the world. Refers to a valuable source of protein and contains a large amount of vitamins I12, B6, PP, pantothenic acid, biotin and choline.
Pork is distinguished by marbling and light pink color of the flesh, a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, white color of internal fat and high calorie content (per hundred grams of 263 kcal).
In medical nutrition, fat-free edged pork is used for gastritis, simple and malignant anemia.
Pig meat is ideal for stewing, boiling, roasting and roasting. It is used to prepare cabbage soup, borscht, cutlets, pickles, stews, schnitzels, kebabs, jellies, escalopes, dumplings, boiled pork, bacon, ham, meat rolls, brawn, brisket, carbonade, loin, sausage, sausages, ham and sausages.
It is an evergreen tree that belongs to the genus Cinnamon of the Laurel family.
Cinnamon is also called the dried bark of the cinnamon tree, which is a spice. It has antiviral, antibacterial, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, its use prevents the formation of blood clots, stabilizes blood sugar levels, strengthens the cardiovascular system, removes bad breath, makes breathing easier for chronic coughs, reduces cold symptoms, and promotes digestion. It is recommended for internal and external infections, flatulence, to reduce pain symptoms during the menstrual cycle.
Cinnamon is used in cooking in the form of whole sticks or ground bark powder. It is used in the preparation of hot and cold sweets, first and second courses, confectionery.
It is also called lombard nut or hazel is a plant of the Birch family, which looks like a tree or shrub with thin, tall branches, bream-shaped leaves and large nuts. Scientists claim that the Black Sea coast became the ancestral home of hazelnuts. It should be noted that hazelnuts were cultivated back in the Antique era, and in the modern world, industrial production of hazelnuts is most developed in the USA, Turkey, Spain, Italy, in the Caucasus and the Balkans, in the countries of Asia Minor.
Hazelnuts contain vitamins A, B, C, PP, E, amino acids, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, fluorine, manganese, zinc, iodine, chlorine, copper, iron, sodium, cobalt, iron, carotenoids, phytosterols and flavonoids.
Among the useful properties of hazelnuts, the following are distinguished: prevents the formation of carcinogenic elements in the body (prevention of cancer, heart disease); strengthens teeth and bones; promotes the production of sex hormones; normalizes the activity of the muscular and nervous system.
Hazelnuts are used in the manufacture of all kinds of confectionery (chocolate, pasta, ice cream, cakes, biscuits, rolls, cookies, pies and other goodies).