General description of the disease
Scabies is a highly contagious skin disease that is transmitted mainly by contact through a sick person or contaminated household items and is caused by a scabies mite. The highest frequency of infections was recorded in children’s groups.
The cause of the disease is the scabies mite. During the day, the activity of the tick is not the same (the greatest in the evening). You can become infected as a result of prolonged contact with the sick person or through contact with his household items (the highest probability of infection occurs in the evening and at night, during the period of tick activity). Under favorable environmental conditions, the female Sarcoptes scabiei can remain active for up to 1.5 days.
The pathogen lives in the epidermis. It can burrow through the skin and lay eggs.
High risk of infection in humans:
- in contact with the patient or his household items at night;
- living in the same room with the patient;
- close contact with the patient in the evening.
Infection through contact with household items is carried out if the patient has a high parasitic index (a large number of adults and larvae in the epidermis).
The clinical picture has its own characteristics when infected by a female or larvae. The incubation period for infection with scabies through the larva lasts 14 days. When infected with an adult scabies mite, the symptoms of scabies appear immediately.
How does scabies look and feel? Allocate a typical and atypical course of the disease.
In a typical course, patients may complain of intense itching, which becomes more intense in the evening and at night. By combing, some of the females and larvae are removed from the surface layers of the skin. On the surface of the skin (mainly symmetrically), whitish lines (moves) appear, rising above the skin, up to 5–7 mm long.
Near the passages are dense red-purple tubercles, traces of scratching, blood crusts are determined. At the base of the hair shaft, tubercles or vesicles form (this is where the female lays her eggs). When an infection is attached, vesicles filled with cloudy contents may appear.
Rashes on the skin are associated not only with the mechanical effect of the female on the skin, but also with the development of allergic and inflammatory pathological processes in response to the waste products of the tick itself or the larvae. Possible development of infectious complications.
There are small features of the localization of “scabies” among infected people of different age groups and gender. They appear:
- in adults on the hands and interdigital folds, abdomen, flexor surfaces of the legs and arms, in the armpits;
- in women – in the nipples;
- in men – in the scrotum, penis;
- in children – on the head, buttocks, palms and feet, under the nail plates.
On the skin of the back, head, neck, elements of the rash are often absent. This is due to the release of large amounts of sebum by the skin, which fills the ventilation ducts and interferes with the life of the tick.
Atypical cases of scabies are manifested as follows:
- In patients infected with mite larvae, during the incubation period, there are no “scabies” (scabies without burrows).
- In the elderly, due to physiological processes associated with hypotrophy of the skin and subcutaneous fat, signs of scabies are mild.
- In people with immunosuppression (iatrogenic or against the background of HIV infection ), itching is less pronounced. This contributes to the rapid spread of the tick throughout the body, including the back and head. On the skin, there are many elements of the rash that are closely spaced from each other, the skin quickly dries up, the formation of dense plaques is possible, under which the pathogen multiplies.
- In people who often perform hygiene procedures, there are fewer rashes, the symptoms of the disease are not so obvious.
- In severe cases, the disease becomes systemic, the general condition is disturbed, hyperthermia is noted.
Often scabies, especially in childhood, is complicated by the addition of an infection (pyoderma, folliculitis, furuncle), the development of various allergic reactions ( eczema , urticaria ).
Types of scabies:
- Typical scabies.
- Scabies without strokes (there are bubbles on the skin, since the infection occurred with larvae).
- Scabies “clean” – it is mild, as people often wash and wash off most of the ticks.
- Norwegian scabies – manifests itself in those who have a weakened immune system.
- Pseudo-scab – when infected from animals.
- Complicated scabies is a consequence of an associated infection.
Useful foods for scabies
In case of scabies, as such, there are no pronounced nutritional characteristics, since there is no systemic infection. However, doctors advise adding more vitamins to the diet or prescribing vitamin complexes in order to boost immunity.
- It is useful to use pork and beef liver, sour cream, sweet potatoes, oysters, cottage cheese, feta cheese, seaweed, processed cheese, butter and broccoli, as they have a high content of vitamin A. And it promotes tissue regeneration, increased immunity, and increased resistance organism to infections.
- The consumption of kiwi, black currant, Brussels sprouts, sweet peppers, cauliflower and red cabbage, citrus fruits, strawberries and spinach provides the body with vitamin C, which is indispensable for the formation of connective tissue, including skin, and also helps the body fight toxins.
- Eating cream, sea bass, chicken eggs and sour cream provides the body with vitamin D, which has been proven to be effective in treating certain skin conditions.
- It is important to eat egg yolk, lentils, peas, peanuts, liver, rice, oatmeal, barley, spinach, potatoes, as well as meat products, pike, bacon, shrimp, as they contain choline, or vitamin B4, which the body needs to complete assimilation of other vitamins. In addition, it prevents the development of diabetes mellitus, as it strengthens the membranes of beta cells that produce insulin.
- Eating champignons, peanuts, pistachios, hazelnuts, beans, oatmeal, walnuts, corn, barley and pork liver provides the body with vitamin B3, which not only supports immunity, but also promotes rapid wound healing.
- Pine nuts, almonds, champignons, boletus, chanterelles, processed cheese, mackerel, spinach, goose meat supply the body with vitamin B2, which is indispensable for tissue renewal and also has a positive effect on the skin.
- Eating buckwheat, pasta, lentils, cashews, corn, pork and oatmeal provides the body with vitamin B1, which helps it resist infections.
- Hazelnuts, broccoli, spinach, barley, leeks contain vitamin B9, which is indispensable for the formation of new skin cells.
- The use of dried apricots and prunes, pike perch, squid, barley, sorrel and eel enriches the body with vitamin E, which increases the body’s defenses.
- Vitamin H, found in liver, chicken eggs, oatmeal, peas, chicken meat, cod meat, strawberries, cream and sour cream, helps support immunity and has a positive effect on skin health.
- Rabbit, chicken, goose, as well as pike, sardine, mackerel, tuna, salmon, beef, peas, squid, turkey enrich the body with vitamin PP, which is essential for skin health.
- Eating beets, apples, apricots, carrots, eggplant, corn, kiwi and lemon increases the intake of boron in the body, which enhances the ability of insulin to lower blood glucose levels and thus protects against diabetes.
- Pigeon meat, peas, pistachios, dogwood, corn and pine nuts enrich the body with iron, which increases the body’s defenses.
- Turkey, beef, pork, lamb, liver, rabbit and chicken, as well as eggs and fish (sardine, pink salmon and sea bass) supply the body with sulfur, which is called the “mineral of beauty.”
Folk remedies for the treatment of scabies
- 1 You can use chamomile tea baths to improve skin condition.
- 2 You can also treat the affected areas of the skin with a mixture of 1 tbsp. celandine juice and 4 tbsp. l. petroleum jelly.
- 3 Birch tar can be applied to the affected areas of the body, which, after 3 hours, is washed off with warm water.
- 4 In addition, the affected areas can be treated with a mixture of 1 tsp. turpentine with 2 tbsp. l. butter.
- 5 Also, scabies is treated with juice from the leaves of figs.
- 6 You can wipe the affected areas with a mixture of bay leaves crushed in a coffee grinder and butter in equal amounts.
- 7 When treating scabies in children, it is advised to dissolve a piece of soap in warm water so that a large amount of foam forms and apply it with a sponge on the affected skin for 30 minutes, then bathe the child in warm water. Using ointments for scabies after such a procedure will be more effective.
- 8 When treating scabies, treating the affected areas with lavender oil helps.
- 9 Another effective treatment is to apply crushed chalk, sifted through a fine strainer, to itchy areas.
- 10 Scabies can be treated by treating the affected areas with lingonberry juice.
Dangerous and harmful foods for scabies
- Often doctors advise to limit the consumption of sweets, since the high sugar content contributes to the spread of the mite.
- It is not recommended to consume alcoholic beverages during the treatment for scabies, so as not to “clog” the body with toxins.
- It is also advisable to limit the consumption of spicy and salty foods during this period, since there is a possibility that these foods can provoke an exacerbation of the disease.
Treatment is provided to sick and contact persons. It assumes:
- eradication of the pathogen, eggs, larvae from the body;
- elimination of clinical manifestations of the disease;
- prevention of complications;
- preventing the spread of the parasite.
There are several types of therapy:
- specific (when itch moves are detected);
- trial and prophylactic (if scabies is suspected, but in the absence of laboratory and instrumental confirmation).
How to get rid of scabies? During treatment, the following rules are followed:
- treatment is carried out in the epidochage at the same time for everyone;
- before treatment, it is recommended to wash thoroughly with soap and steam the skin as much as possible;
- medicines are applied in the evening, well rubbed into the skin;
- do not wash off the drug from the skin, including from the hands, for 12 hours;
- for children, the drug is applied to the entire surface of the skin;
- after the end of the course of therapy, all household items, bed and underwear, clothes, toys are processed with special means.
In the treatment of scabies, scabicides are used (drugs that destroy the scabies mite, its eggs and larvae) in dosage forms such as ointment, cream, emulsion, aerosol, suspension.
Pharmacotherapy involves the use of drugs such as:
- benzyl benzoate derivatives (not used in children under 3 years of age and in pregnant women);
- “Permethrin” (not used in children under 1 year old, in lactating);
- sulfuric ointment (not used in children under 2 years of age, in pregnant women);
- piperonyl butoxide with esbiol (can be used by pregnant women and children under 1 year old).
With scabies with the formation of dense crusts, it is necessary to first soften them with salicylic ointment.
During the course of therapy, studies are periodically carried out to identify active individuals of the tick.
It is possible to hospitalize a patient in a hospital with:
- the presence of severe complications;
- the impossibility of conducting high-quality therapy on an outpatient basis;
- the patient has neuropsychiatric abnormalities;
- inability to isolate the patient from healthy individuals.
A complete treatment regimen, dosages of drugs, sanitary and anti-epidemic measures are developed by the doctor individually.
Prevention of scabies
To prevent infecting others, you must:
- actively identify contact persons;
- carry out anti-epidemic measures in the outbreak in full;
- use protective equipment when caring for the sick.
Until complete recovery, the patient is isolated.
The administration is not responsible for any attempt to use the information provided, and does not guarantee that it will not harm you personally. The materials cannot be used to prescribe treatment and make a diagnosis. Always consult your specialist doctor!
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