Tunas are a large group of representatives of the ichthyofauna, constituting several genera in the mackerel family. Tunas include about 15 species of fish. Most tunas have a powerful spindle-shaped body like all mackerels, a very narrow caudal peduncle, sickle-shaped tail and fins, leathery keels on the sides. The shape and structure of the body gives out swift predators in all tuna. Yellowfin tuna can reach speeds of over 75 km/h. Tunas are one of the few fish species that can maintain their body temperature slightly above ambient temperature. Active pelargic fish, in search of food, can travel long distances. The whole physiology of tuna is subject to high-speed movement. Because of this, the structure of the respiratory and circulatory system is arranged in such a way that the fish have to constantly move. The size of different fish species can vary greatly. Small mackerel tuna, which lives in almost all waters of warm seas, grows barely more than 5 kg. Relatively small species of tuna (for example, Atlantic) gain a little more than 20 kg in weight. At the same time, the maximum size of common tuna was recorded at around 684 kg with a length of 4.6 m. Among tropical fish, only marlin and swordfish can be found larger than it. Small species and young fish live in large flocks, large individuals prefer to hunt in small groups or alone. The main diet of tuna consists of various small pelargic invertebrates and mollusks, as well as small fish. Tunas are of great commercial importance; in many coastal countries, fish are bred as aquaculture. Due to predatory prey, some species of tuna are endangered. Fishing for tuna has a number of restrictions, be sure to check the catch quotas and allowed species of fish in the region where you are going to fish.
Industrial fishing is carried out in a large number of ways, from trawls and longlines to ordinary fishing rods. The most common amateur way of catching large tuna is trolling. In addition, they catch tuna on spinning “cast”, “plumb” and with the help of natural baits. At the same time, tuna can be lured in various ways, for example, with the help of air bubbles. For this, boats are equipped with special units. The tuna believes that these are clusters of fry and comes close to the vessel, where it is caught on spinners.
Trolling tuna fishing
Tunas, along with swordfish and marlin, are considered one of the most desirable opponents in saltwater fishing due to their size, temperament and aggressiveness. To catch them, you will need the most serious fishing tackle. Sea trolling is a method of fishing using a moving motor vehicle such as a boat or boat. For fishing in the ocean and sea open spaces, specialized vessels equipped with numerous devices are used. In the case of tunas, these are, as a rule, large motor yachts and boats. This is due not only to the size of possible trophies, but also to the conditions of fishing. Rod holders are the main elements of equipment for vessels. In addition, boats are equipped with chairs for playing fish, a table for making baits, powerful echo sounders and more. Specialized rods are also used, made of fiberglass and other polymers with special fittings. Coils are used multiplier, maximum capacity. The device of trolling reels is subject to the main idea of such gear: strength. A mono-line, up to 4 mm thick or more, is measured in kilometers during such fishing. There are quite a lot of auxiliary devices that are used depending on the fishing conditions: for deepening the equipment, for placing baits in the fishing area, for attaching bait, and so on, including numerous items of equipment. Trolling, especially when hunting for sea giants, is a group type of fishing. As a rule, several rods are used. In the case of a bite, the coherence of the team is important for a successful capture. Before the trip, it is advisable to find out the rules of fishing in the region. In most cases, fishing is carried out by professional guides who are fully responsible for the event. It should be noted that the search for a trophy at sea or in the ocean may be associated with many hours of waiting for a bite, sometimes unsuccessful.
Spinning tuna fishing
Fish live in large open spaces of the seas, so fishing takes place from boats of various classes. For catching tuna of different sizes, along with other marine fish, anglers use spinning gear. For tackle, in spinning fishing for sea fish, as in the case of trolling, the main requirement is reliability. Reels should be with an impressive supply of fishing line or cord. Equally important is the use of special leashes that will protect your bait from breaking. In addition to a trouble-free braking system, the coil must be protected from salt water. Spinning fishing from a vessel may differ in the principles of bait supply. In many types of sea fishing equipment, very fast wiring is required, which means a high gear ratio of the winding mechanism. According to the principle of operation, coils can be both multiplier and inertial-free. Accordingly, the rods are selected depending on the reel system. In the case of dormice, rigs are often used to fish for “flying fish” or squid. It is worth mentioning here that when fishing on the spinning of marine fish, fishing technique is very important. To select the correct wiring, you should consult experienced local anglers or guides.
For tuna fishing, traditional sea lures are used, corresponding to the type of fishing. Trolling, most often, is caught on various spinners, wobblers and silicone imitations. Natural baits are also used; for this, experienced guides make baits using special equipment. When fishing for spinning, various marine wobblers, spinners and other artificial imitations of aquatic life are often used. When catching small tuna for the purpose of baiting or entertainment during boat trips, along with spinning gear, simple equipment for catching fillet or shrimp pieces can be used.
Places of fishing and habitat
Most species live in tropical and subtropical waters of the oceans. In addition, fish live in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, but in the latter, tuna catches are quite rare. Periodic visits of tuna to the North Atlantic and the Barents Sea are known. During periods of warm summer, tuna can reach the waters surrounding the Kola Peninsula. In the Far East, the habitat is limited to the seas washing the Japanese islands, but they also catch tuna in Russian waters. As already mentioned, tuna live in the upper layers of the waters of the seas and oceans, moving long distances in search of food.
As in the case of other, widespread fish, spawning in tuna depends on several circumstances. In any case, spawning in all species is seasonal and depends on the species. The age of puberty begins at 2-3 years of age. Most species breed in the warm waters of the tropics and subtropics. To do this, they make long migrations. The form of spawning is directly related to the pelargic way of life. Females, depending on size, are very fertile.