Vitamin E
The content of the article

International names – tocol, tocopherol, tocotrienol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocotrienol, beta-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, delta-tocotrienol.

Chemical formula

C29H50O2

a brief description of

Vitamin E is a powerful vitamin that inhibits the proliferation of reactive oxygen species and improves overall health. In addition, it stops the functioning of free radicals, and as a regulator of enzymatic activity, it plays a role in the proper development of muscles. Affects gene expression, maintains eye and nervous system health. One of the main functions of vitamin E is by maintaining the balance of cholesterol levels. It improves blood circulation to the scalp, accelerates the healing process, and also protects the skin from drying out. Vitamin E protects our body from harmful external factors and preserves our youth.

History of discovery

Vitamin E was first discovered in 1922 by scientists Evans and Bishop as an unknown component of B needed for reproduction in female rats. This observation was immediately published, and initially the substance was named “factor X“And”factor against infertility”, And later Evans offered to officially accept the letter designation E for him – following the recently discovered one.

The active compound vitamin E was isolated in 1936 from wheat germ oil. Since this substance allowed the animals to have offspring, the research team decided to name it alpha-tocopherol – from the Greek “stumps“(Which means the birth of a child) and”ferein“(To grow). To indicate the presence of an OH group in the molecule, “ol” was added to the end. Its correct structure was given in 1938, and the substance was first synthesized by P. Carrer, also in 1938. In the 1940s, a team of Canadian doctors discovered that vitamin E could protect people from. The demand for vitamin E has increased rapidly. Along with market demand, the number of foods available for the pharmaceutical, food, feed and cosmetics industries has increased. In 1968, Vitamin E was formally recognized by the National Academy of Sciences’ Nutrition and Nutrition Boards as an essential nutrient.

Vitamin E-rich foods

Indicated approximate availability in 100 g of product:

+ 16 more foods rich in vitamin E (the amount of μg in 100 g of the product is indicated):
Crayfish2.85Spinach2.03Octopus1.2Apricot0.89
Trout2.34Chard1.89Blackberry1.17Raspberry0.87
Butter2.32Red bell pepper1.58Asparagus1.13Broccoli0.78
Pumpkin seeds (dried)2.18Curly cabbage1.54Black currant1Papaya0.3
Avocado2.07Kiwi1.46Mango0.9Sweet potato0.26

Daily requirement for vitamin E

As we can see, vegetable oils are the main sources of vitamin E. Also, a large amount of vitamin can be obtained from. Vitamin E is very important for our body, therefore it is necessary to ensure that a sufficient amount of it is supplied with food. According to official figures, the daily intake of vitamin E is:

AgeMen: mg / day (International Units / day)Women: mg / day (International Units / day)
Infants 0-6 months4 mg (6 ME)4 mg (6 ME)
Infants 7-12 months5 mg (7,5 ME)5 mg (7,5 ME)
Children 1-3 years old6 mg (9 ME)6 mg (9 ME)
4-8 years old7 mg (10,5 ME)7 mg (10,5 ME)
9-13 years old11 mg (16,5 ME)11 mg (16,5 ME)
Teens 14-18 years15 mg (22,5 ME)15 mg (22,5 ME)
Adults 19 and over15 mg (22,5 ME)15 mg (22,5 ME)
Pregnant (any age)15 mg (22,5 ME)
Breastfeeding mothers (any age)19 mg (28,5 ME)

Scientists believe there is strong evidence that a daily intake of at least 200 IU (134 mg) of alpha-tocopherol can protect adults from certain chronic diseases such as heart problems, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer.

The main problem in making vitamin E recommendations is intake dependence (PUFA). There are large differences in PUFA consumption across Europe. Based on the proportional relationship between vitamin E and PUFA requirements, recommendations should take into account the varying intake of acid in different populations. Taking into account the difficulty of reaching recommendations with an optimal effect on human metabolism, the daily intake of vitamin E for adults, expressed in milligrams of alpha-tocopherol equivalents (mg alpha-TEQ), differs in European countries:

  • in Belgium – 10 mg per day;
  • in France – 12 mg per day;
  • in Austria, Germany, Switzerland – 15 mg per day;
  • in Italy – more than 8 mg per day;
  • in Spain – 12 mg per day;
  • in the Netherlands – 9,3 mg per day for women, 11,8 mg per day for men;
  • in the Nordic countries – women 8 mg per day, men 10 mg per day;
  • in the UK – more than 3 mg per day for women, more than 4 mg per day for men.

Generally, we can get enough vitamin E from food. In some cases, the need for it may increase, for example, in severe chronic diseases:

  • chronic;
  • cholestatic syndrome;
  • cystic fibrosis;
  • primary biliary;
  • ;
  • irritable bowel syndrome;
  • ataxia.

These diseases interfere with the absorption of vitamin E in the intestines.

Chemical and physical properties

Vitamin E refers to all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. Due to phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit different degrees of antioxidant activity depending on the location and number of methyl groups and the type of isoprenoids. Vitamin E is stable when heated to temperatures between 150 and 175 ° C. It is less stable in acidic and alkaline environments. α-Tocopherol has the consistency of a clear, viscous oil. It can degrade with some types of food processing. At temperatures below 0 ° C, it loses its activity. Its activity adversely affects iron, chlorine and mineral oil. Insoluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, miscible in ether. Color – slightly yellow to amber, almost odorless, oxidizes and darkens when exposed to air or light.

The term vitamin E encompasses eight related fat-soluble compounds found in nature: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). In humans, only alpha-tocopherol is selected and synthesized in the liver, so it is the most abundant in the body. The form of alpha-tocopherol found in plants is RRR-alpha-tocopherol (also called natural or d-alpha-tocopherol). The form of vitamin E primarily used in fortified foods and nutritional supplements is all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic or dl-alpha-tocopherol). It contains RRR-alpha-tocopherol and seven very similar forms of alpha-tocopherol. All-rac-alpha-tocopherol is defined as slightly less biologically active than RRR-alpha-tocopherol, although this definition is currently being revised.

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Useful properties and its effect on the body

Metabolism in the body

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that breaks down and is stored in the body’s fatty layer. It acts as an antioxidant by breaking down free radicals that damage cells. Free radicals are molecules that have an unpaired electron, making them highly reactive. They feed on healthy cells during a number of biochemical processes. Some free radicals are natural by-foods of digestion, while others come from cigarette smoke, grill carcinogens, and other sources. Healthy cells damaged by free radicals can lead to the development of chronic diseases such as heart disease etc. Having a sufficient amount of vitamin E in the diet can serve as a preventive measure to protect the body from these diseases. Optimal absorption is achieved when vitamin E is ingested with food.

Vitamin E is absorbed into the intestines and enters the bloodstream through the lymphatic system. It is absorbed together with lipids, enters the chylomicrons, and with their help is transported to the liver. This process is similar for all forms of vitamin E. Only after passing through the liver does α-tocopherol appear in plasma. Most of the β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol consumed is secreted in bile or not absorbed and excreted from the body. The reason for this is the presence in the liver of a special substance – a protein that exclusively transports α-tocopherol, TTPA.

Plasma administration of RRR-α-tocopherol is a saturating process. Plasma levels stopped rising at ~ 80 μM with vitamin E supplementation, even though doses were increased to 800 mg. Studies show that the limitation of plasma α-tocopherol concentration appears to be the result of rapid replacement of circulating newly absorbed α-tocopherol. These data are consistent with kinetic analyzes showing that the entire plasma composition of α-tocopherol is renewed daily.

 

Interaction with other elements

Vitamin E has antioxidant effects when combined with other antioxidants, including beta-carotene, and. Vitamin C can restore oxidized vitamin E to its natural antioxidant form. Megadoses of vitamin C may increase the need for vitamin E. Vitamin E may also protect against some of the effects of excessive amounts and regulate levels of this vitamin. Vitamin E is essential for vitamin A to work, and a high intake of vitamin A can reduce vitamin E absorption.

Vitamin E may be required to be converted to its active form and may reduce some of the symptoms of deficiency. Large doses of vitamin E can interfere with the anticoagulant effect of vitamin K and may decrease intestinal absorption.

Vitamin E increases intestinal absorption of vitamin A at medium to high concentrations, up to 40%. A and E work together to increase antioxidant capacity, protect against certain forms of cancer, and support gut health. They work synergistically for, hearing loss, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, immune response, and brain health.

 

Selenium deficiency exacerbates the effects of vitamin E deficiency, which in turn may prevent selenium toxicity. A combined selenium and vitamin E deficiency has a greater impact on the body than a deficiency in just one of the nutrients. The combined action of vitamin E and selenium may help prevent cancer by stimulating apoptosis in abnormal cells.

Inorganic iron affects the absorption of vitamin E and can destroy it. Vitamin E deficiency exacerbates excess iron, but supplemental vitamin E prevents it. It is best to take these supplements at different times.

Digestibility

Vitamins are most beneficial when combined correctly. For the best effect, we recommend using the following combinations:

  • tomato and avocado;
  • fresh carrots and nut butters;
  • greens and salad with olive oil;
  • sweet potato and walnut;
  • bell peppers and guacamole.

A combination of spinach (moreover, having been cooked, it will have great nutritional value) and vegetable oil will be useful.

Natural vitamin E is a family of 8 different compounds – 4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols. This means that if you consume certain healthy foods, you will get all of these 8 compounds. In turn, synthetic vitamin E contains only one of these 8 components (alpha-tocopherol). Thus, a vitamin E tablet is not always a good idea. Synthetic medicines cannot give you what natural sources of the vitamin can do. There are a small number of medicinal vitamins, which also contain vitamin E acetate and vitamin E succinate. While they are known to prevent heart disease, we still recommend that you get your vitamin E from your diet.

Use in official medicine

Vitamin E has the following functions in the body:

  • maintaining healthy cholesterol levels in the body;
  • the fight against free radicals and the prevention of disease;
  • restoration of damaged skin;
  • maintaining hair density;
  • balance of hormone levels in the blood;
  • relief of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome;
  • vision improvement;
  • slowing down the dementia process in other neurodegenerative diseases;
  • possible reduction in the risk of cancer;
  • increased endurance and muscle strength;
  • great importance in pregnancy, growth and development.

Taking vitamin E in the form of a medicinal product is effective in treating:

  • ataxia – a motility disorder associated with a lack of vitamin E in the body;
  • deficiency of vitamin E. In this case, as a rule, prescribed intake of 60-75 International Units of vitamin E per day.
In addition, vitamin E can help with diseases such as:
, bladder cancer,, dyspraxia (impaired motility), granulomatosis,
Name of the diseasedosage
Alzheimer’s disease, slowing down memory impairmentup to 2000 International Units daily
beta thalassemia (blood disorder)750 IU per day;
dysmenorrhea (painful periods)200 IU twice a day or 500 IU a day two days before the onset of menstruation and during the first three days
male infertility200 – 600 IU per day
rheumatoid arthritis600 IU per day
sunburn1000 IU combined + 2 g of ascorbic acid
premenstrual syndrome400 ME

Most often, the effectiveness of vitamin E in such cases is manifested in combination with other drugs. Before taking it, be sure to consult with your doctor.

In pharmacology, vitamin E is found in the form of soft capsules of 0,1 g, 0,2 g and 0,4 g, as well as a solution of tocopherol acetate in oil in vials and ampoules, fat-soluble vitamins, powder for the manufacture of tablets and capsules with a content of 50% vitamin E. These are the most common forms of the vitamin. In order to convert the amount of a substance from International Units to mg, 1 IU must be equated to 0,67 mg (if we are talking about the natural form of the vitamin) or to 0,45 mg (synthetic substance). 1 mg of alpha-tocopherol is equal to 1,49 IU in natural form or 2,22 of a synthetic substance. It is best to take the dosage form of the vitamin before or during meals.

Application in folk medicine

Traditional and alternative medicine values ​​vitamin E primarily for its nourishing, regenerative and moisturizing properties. Oils, as the main source of vitamin, are very often found in folk recipes for various diseases and skin problems. For example, olive oil is considered to be effective – it moisturizes, soothes the skin and relieves inflammation. It is recommended to apply the oil to the scalp, elbows and other affected areas.

For the treatment of various types, jojoba oil, coconut oil, wheat germ oil, grape seed oil are used. All of them help cleanse the skin, soothe sore areas and nourish the skin with beneficial substances.

Comfrey ointment, which contains vitamin E, is recommended for use. To do this, first mix the leaves or roots of the comfrey (1: 1, as a rule, a glass of oil to 1 glass of the plant), then make a decoction from the resulting mixture (cook for 30 minutes). After that, filter the broth and add a quarter of a glass of beeswax and a little pharmacy vitamin E. A compress is made from such an ointment, kept on painful areas for a day.

Another of the many plants that contain vitamin E is ivy. For treatment, the roots, leaves and branches of the plant are used, which are used as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory effect, has an expectorant, diuretic and antispasmodic effects. The broth is used for rheumatism, gout, purulent wounds, amenorrhea and tuberculosis. It is necessary to use ivy preparations with caution, since the plant itself is poisonous and contraindicated in pregnancy, hepatitis and children.

Traditional medicine is often used as a remedy for many ailments. Like all nuts, it is a storehouse of vitamin E. Moreover, both mature and unripe fruits, leaves, seeds, shells and seed oil are used. For example, a decoction of walnut leaves is used in the form of compresses to accelerate wound healing. A decoction of unripe fruits is recommended to drink as tea three times a day for stomach diseases, parasites, scrofula, hypovitaminosis, scurvy and diabetes. Alcoholic infusion is used for dysentery, pain in the organs of the urinary system. A tincture of golden mustache leaves, walnut kernels, honey and water is taken as a remedy for bronchitis. Unripe nuts are considered a powerful remedy for parasites in folk medicine. Nut peel jam helps with kidney inflammation and fibroids.

In addition, vitamin E is traditionally considered a fertility vitamin, it is used for ovarian wasting syndrome, male and female infertility. For example, a mixture of evening primrose oil and pharmacy vitamin E is considered effective (1 tablespoon of oil and 1 capsule of vitamin, taken three times a day before meals for a month).

A universal remedy is an ointment based on sunflower oil, beeswax, etc. Such an ointment is advised to be used externally (for the treatment of various skin lesions, from) and internally (in the form of tampons for a runny nose, ear inflammation, diseases of the reproductive organs, as well as using it internally and ulcers).

Vitamin E in scientific research

  • A new study identified genes that control the amount of vitamin E in grains, which may stimulate further nutritional and nutritional improvements. Scientists have performed several types of analysis to identify 14 genes that synthesize vitamin E. Recently, six genes coding for protein and are responsible for the synthesis of vitamin E were found. Breeders are working to increase the amount of provitamin A in corn, while increasing the composition of vitamin E. They are biochemically linked. and tochromanols are essential for seed viability. They prevent oil shedding in seeds during storage, germination and early seedlings.
  • Vitamin E is not in vain so popular among bodybuilders – it really helps maintain muscle strength and health. Scientists have finally figured out how this happens. Vitamin E has long established itself as a powerful antioxidant, and recently it was studied that without it, the plasma membrane (which protects the cell from the leakage of its contents, and also controls the entry and release of substances) would not be able to fully recover. Since vitamin E is fat-soluble, it can actually be incorporated into the membrane, protecting the cell from free radical attack. It also helps preserve phospholipids, one of the most important cellular components responsible for cell repair after damage. For example, when you exercise, your mitochondria burn much more oxygen than normal, resulting in more free radicals and membrane damage. Vitamin E ensures their complete recovery, despite increased oxidation, keeping the process under control.
  • Vitamin E deficient zebrafish produced offspring with behavioral and metabolic problems, according to a new study from the University of Oregon. These findings are significant because the neurological development of zebrafish is similar to the neurological development of humans. The problem can be exacerbated in women of childbearing age who avoid high-fat foods and avoid oils, nuts and seeds, which are some of the foods with the highest levels of vitamin E, an antioxidant essential for normal embryonic development in vertebrates. Embryos deficient in vitamin E had more deformities and a higher death rate, as well as an altered DNA methylation status as early as five days after fertilization. Five days is the time it takes for a fertilized egg to become a swimming fish. The results of the study suggest that vitamin E deficiency in zebrafish causes long-term impairment that cannot be reversed even with later dietary vitamin E supplementation.
  • The new discovery of scientists proves that the use of salad with the addition of vegetable fat helps the absorption of eight nutrients. And by eating the same salad, but without oil, we reduce the body’s ability to absorb trace elements. Certain types of salad dressings can help you absorb more nutrients, according to research. Researchers have found increased absorption of several fat-soluble vitamins in addition to beta-carotene and three other carotenoids. Such a result can reassure those who, even while on a diet, cannot resist adding a drop of oil to a light salad.
  • Preliminary evidence suggests that antioxidant supplements of vitamin E and selenium – alone or in combination – do not prevent dementia in asymptomatic older men. However, this conclusion cannot be conclusive due to insufficient study, inclusion of only men in the study, short exposure times, varying dosages and methodological limitations based on actual incident reporting.

Use in cosmetology

Due to its valuable properties, vitamin E is very often an ingredient in many cosmetics. In its composition, it is indicated as “tocopherol‘(‘tocopherol“) or “tocotrienol‘(‘tocotrienol“). If the name is preceded by the prefix “d” (for example, d-alpha-tocopherol), then the vitamin is obtained from natural sources; if the prefix is ​​”dl”, then the substance was synthesized in the laboratory. Cosmetologists value vitamin E for the following characteristics:

  • vitamin E is an antioxidant and destroys free radicals;
  • it has sunscreen properties, namely, it increases the effectiveness of the sunscreen effect of special creams, and also relieves the condition after sun exposure;
  • has moisturizing qualities – in particular, alpha-tocopherol acetate, which strengthens the natural skin barrier and reduces the amount of lost fluid;
  • an excellent preservative that protects the active ingredients in cosmetics from oxidation.

There are also a very large number of natural recipes for skin, hair and nails that effectively nourish, restore and tone them. The easiest way to care for your skin is to rub various oils into your skin, and for hair, to apply the oil to the entire length of your hair for at least an hour before washing, once or twice a week. If you have dry or dull skin, try using a mixture of rose oil and pharmacy vitamin E to stimulate collagen production. Another anti-aging recipe includes cocoa butter, sea buckthorn and tocopherol solution. A mask with aloe vera juice and a solution of vitamin E, vitamin A and a small amount of nourishing cream nourishes the skin. An exfoliating universal effect will bring a mask of egg white, a spoonful of honey and a dozen drops of vitamin E.

Dry, normal and combination skin will be transformed by a mixture of banana pulp, high fat cream and a few drops of tocopherol solution. If you want to give your skin additional tone, mix the pulp of a cucumber and a couple of drops of an oil solution of vitamin E. An effective mask with vitamin E against wrinkles is a mask with pharmacy vitamin E, potato pulp and parsley sprigs. A mask consisting of 2 milliliters of tocopherol, 3 teaspoons of red clay and anise essential oil will help get rid of acne. For dry skin, try mixing 1 ampoule of tocopherol and 3 teaspoons of kelp to moisturize and revitalize your skin.

If you have oily skin, use a mask that contains 4 milliliters of vitamin E, 1 crushed activated charcoal tablet and three teaspoons of ground lentils. For aging skin, a sheet mask is also used, which includes wheat germ oil with the addition of other essential oils – rose, mint, sandalwood, neroli.

Vitamin E is a powerful stimulant for the growth of eyelashes: for this, castor oil, burdock, peach oil are used, which are applied directly to the eyelashes.

Masks containing vitamin E are indispensable for the health and beauty of hair. For example, a nourishing mask with jojoba oil and burdock oil. For dry hair, a mask of burdock, almond and olive oils, as well as an oil solution of vitamin E. If you notice that your hair has begun to fall out, try a mixture of potato juice, juice or aloe vera gel, honey and pharmacy vitamins E and A. To give your hair shine, you can mix olive oil and burdock oil, an oil solution of vitamin E and one egg yolk. And, of course, we must not forget about wheat germ oil – a vitamin “bomb” for hair. For a refreshing and shiny hair, combine banana pulp, avocado, yogurt, vitamin E oil and wheat germ oil. All of the above masks must be applied for 20-40 minutes, wrapping the hair in a plastic bag or cling film, and then rinse with shampoo.

To keep your nails healthy and beautiful, it is helpful to apply the following masks:

  • sunflower or olive oil, a few drops of iodine and a few drops of vitamin E – will help with peeling nails;
  • vegetable oil, an oil solution of vitamin E and a little red pepper – to accelerate the growth of nails;
  • , vitamin E and lemon essential oil – for brittle nails;
  • olive oil and vitamin E solution – to soften cuticles.

Livestock use

All animals need sufficient levels of vitamin E in their bodies to support healthy growth, development and reproduction. Stress, exercise, infection and tissue injury increase the animal’s need for vitamin.

It is necessary to ensure its intake through food – fortunately, this vitamin is widely distributed in nature. Lack of vitamin E in animals manifests itself in the form of diseases, most often attacking body tissues, muscles, and also manifested in the form of apathy or depression.

Use in crop production

A few years ago, researchers at the universities of Toronto and Michigan made a discovery about the benefits of vitamin E for plants. Adding vitamin E to the fertilizer has been found to reduce the plants’ susceptibility to cold temperatures. As a result, this makes it possible to discover new, cold-resistant varieties that will bring the best harvest. Gardeners who live in colder climates can experiment with vitamin E and see how it affects plant growth and longevity.

Industrial uses of vitamin E

Vitamin E is widely used in the cosmetic industry – it is a very common ingredient in creams, oils, ointments, shampoos, masks, etc. In addition, it is used in the food industry as a food additive E307. This supplement is completely harmless and has the same properties as a natural vitamin.

Interesting Facts

Vitamin E is contained in the protective coating of grains, so its amount is sharply reduced when they are crushed. To preserve vitamin E, nuts and seeds must be extracted naturally, such as by cold pressing, and not by thermal or chemical extraction used in the food industry.

If you have stretch marks from weight change or pregnancy, vitamin E can significantly help minimize them. Thanks to its powerful antioxidant compounds that stimulate the body to create new skin cells, it also protects collagen fibers from damage that free radicals can cause. In addition, vitamin E stimulates skin elasticity to prevent new stretch marks.

Contraindications and cautions

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, it is not destroyed when exposed to sufficiently high temperatures (up to 150-170 ° C). It is exposed to ultraviolet rays and loses activity when frozen.

Signs of vitamin E deficiency

True vitamin E deficiency is very rare. No overt symptoms were found in healthy people receiving at least minimal amounts of the vitamin from food.

Vitamin E deficiency can be experienced by premature babies born with a weight of less than 1,5 kg. Also, people who have problems with the absorption of fat in the digestive tract are at risk of developing a vitamin deficiency. Symptoms of vitamin E deficiency are peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, skeletal myopathy, retinopathy, and impaired immune response. Signs that your body is not getting enough vitamin E may also include the following symptoms:

  • difficulty walking and coordination difficulties;
  • muscle pain and weakness;
  • visual disturbances;
  • general weakness;
  • decreased sexual desire;
  • anemia.

If you notice any of these symptoms, it is worth considering a visit to your doctor. Only an experienced specialist will be able to determine the presence of a particular disease and prescribe the appropriate treatment. Typically, vitamin E deficiency occurs as a consequence of genetic diseases such as Crohn’s disease, ataxia, cystic fibrosis, and other diseases. Only in this case, large doses of medicinal vitamin E supplements are prescribed.

Safety measures

For most healthy people, vitamin E is very beneficial, both when taken orally and when applied directly to the skin. Most people do not experience any side effects when taking the recommended dose, but adverse reactions can occur with high doses. It is dangerous to exceed the dose if you suffer from heart disease or. In such a case, do not exceed 400 IU (about 0,2 grams) per day.

Some studies show that taking high doses of vitamin E, which is 300 to 800 IU every day, can increase the chance of hemorrhagic stroke by 22%. Another serious side effect of consuming too much vitamin E is an increased risk of bleeding.

Avoid taking supplements containing vitamin E or any other antioxidant vitamins just before and after angioplasty.

Very high vitamin E supplements can potentially lead to the following health problems:

  • heart failure in people with diabetes;
  • worsening bleeding;
  • the risk of recurrent cancer of the prostate gland, neck and head;
  • increased bleeding during and after surgery;
  • an increased likelihood of dying from a heart attack or stroke.

One study found that vitamin E supplements can also be harmful to women who are in the early stages of pregnancy. High doses of vitamin E can also occasionally lead to nausea, abdominal cramps, fatigue, weakness, headache, blurred vision, rash, bruising and bleeding.

Interaction with other drugs

Since vitamin E supplements can slow blood clotting, they should be taken with caution with similar medications (aspirin, clopidogrel, ibuprofen, and warfarin), as they can significantly increase this effect.

Medicines designed to lower cholesterol levels can also interact with vitamin E. It is not known for certain if the effectiveness of such medicines is reduced when only vitamin E is taken, but this effect is very common in combination with vitamin C, beta-carotene and selenium.

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The administration is not responsible for any attempt to apply any recipe, advice or diet, and also does not guarantee that the specified information will help or harm you personally. Be prudent and always consult an appropriate physician!

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