How are urination disorders characterized?
Urination is the act of urinating. Urination disorders are manifold and their nature varies according to age. They can be primary (always present) or secondary to injury, disease, impaired functioning of the bladder, etc.
Normal urination should be well controlled, “easy” (do not force it), painless and allow the bladder to empty satisfactorily.
Voiding disorders are particularly common in children (including bedwetting, nocturnal “bedwetting” and bladder immaturity), although they also affect adults, especially women.
Urination disorders may be due to a bladder filling disorder or on the contrary to the emptying of the bladder. Symptoms vary from person to person.
There are several frequent urination disorders, among others:
- dysuria: difficulty emptying the bladder during voluntary urination (weakness of the jet, urination by spurts)
- pollakiuria: too frequent urination (more than 6 per day and 2 per night)
- acute retention: inability to empty the bladder despite an urgent need
- urgency or urgency: urgent cravings that are difficult to control, abnormal
- urinary incontinence
- polyuria: increased urine volume
- overactive bladder syndrome: urgent needs with or without urinary incontinence, usually associated with pollakiuria or nocturia (need to urinate at night)
What are the possible causes of urination disorders?
There is a wide variety of urination disorders and associated causes.
When the bladder empties poorly, it may be a malfunction of the detrusor muscle (bladder muscle). It can also be an “obstacle” which blocks the exit of urine (at the level of the neck of the bladder, the urethra or the urinary meatus), or even a neurological disorder preventing the passage of urine. bladder to function normally.
It can be, among others (and in a non-exhaustive way):
- obstruction of the urethra linked for example to prostate problems in men (benign prostatic hypertrophy, cancer, prostatitis), to a narrowing (stenosis) of the urethra, to uterine or ovarian tumor, etc. .
- urinary tract infection (cystitis)
- interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome, the causes of which are not well known, which causes urination disorders (very frequent need to urinate, in particular) associated with pelvic or bladder pain
- a neurological disorder: trauma to the spinal cord, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, etc.
- the consequences of diabetes (which affects the nerves that allow the bladder to work well)
- genital prolapse (organ descent) or vaginal tumor
- taking certain medications (anticholinergics, morphines)
In children, urination disorders are most often functional, but they can sometimes indicate a malformation of the urinary tract or a neurological problem.
What are the consequences of urination disorders?
Urination disorders are uncomfortable and can alter the quality of life in a considerable way, with an impact on social, professional, sexual life … The severity of the symptoms is obviously very variable, but it is important not to delay consulting for benefit from rapid support.
In addition, certain disorders such as urinary retention can cause repeated urinary tract infections and it is therefore essential to remedy them quickly.
What are the solutions in the event of voiding disorders?
Treatment will depend on the cause found.
In children, bad urination habits are frequent: fear of going to the toilet at school, urine retention that can cause infections, incomplete emptying of the bladder leading to more frequent urination, etc. Often times, “rehabilitation” fixes the problem.
In women, a weakness of the pelvic floor, especially after childbirth, can lead to incontinence and other urinary problems: perineal rehabilitation usually improves the situation.
In other cases, treatment will be considered if there is significant discomfort. Pharmacological, surgical and rehabilitation treatments (biofeedback, perineal rehabilitation) may be offered depending on the situation. If a urinary tract infection is detected, antibiotic treatment will be offered. Symptoms such as burning and pain when urinating should not be overlooked: a urinary tract infection can have serious complications and should be treated quickly.
Read also :
Our fact sheet on urinary tract infections