Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Description

Cheese is a product that people traditionally make from milk or whey. In the manufacturing process, enzymes and lactic acid bacteria are also used, which give the foods a slightly sour taste.

Almost all types of cheeses known to you from the description or photo are characterized by a high protein content – up to 25% to 60% per 100 g of the product. Proteins from cheese are absorbed faster and better by the human body than those found in milk. They have a positive effect on metabolism and increase appetite.

 

Fermented milk product is a source of microelements. It contains vitamins A, D, E, B1. B2, and C. These substances are responsible for the full functioning of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, the resistance of immunity to viruses and bacteria. Therefore, cheese should be included in the diet regularly.

Cheese history

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It is impossible to say exactly where and when the cheese appeared. But it is known for sure that this wonderful product has come down to us since primitive times. Most likely, it was discovered by observing milk curdling in the heat. Archaeologists suggest that people knew how to make cheese as early as the Neolithic (about 5000 BC). This means that the history of cheese is more than 7000 years old.

Many researchers believe that the birthplace of cheese is the Middle East: the Bedouins used leather bags from sheep’s stomachs to transport milk, and shaking, heat and enzymes turned it into cheese.

However, in Europe, cheese has been known since ancient times.
Thus, Homer’s poem “The Odyssey” tells how Odysseus and his companions, having got into the cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus, found a lot of cheeses in baskets, and yogurt in buckets and bowls. There we also find a description of the preparation of cheese: “Polyphemus milked the goats and sheep, as is customary for everyone.

He took half of the white milk, instantly fermented,
immediately squeezed it out and put it into tightly woven baskets … “. So the ancient Greeks knew about cheese making no less than us. This is evidenced by the treatise of Aristotle (384-322 BC), which describes the processes of milk curdling and the technique of making cheese.

 

Types of cheeses with descriptions and photos

There are several classifications of cheeses. They are based on the following criteria:

  • type of production;
  • by the raw materials used;
  • by percentage of fat.

Types of cheese by production method

The kind of cheese that is not pressed or ripened is fresh. Experts sometimes attribute this type of fermented milk foods to cottage cheese. It can be used both as an independent product for consumption, and for the preparation of various dishes: dumplings, cheesecakes, ice cream.

Soft cheese varieties

They are made from cream and therefore have a delicate taste and soft texture. Such varieties are very difficult to cut with a knife, but from this they do not lose their unique taste.

 

The varieties of soft cheeses include cream and curd. These species hold the record for amino acid and protein content. The most popular types of soft cheese with photos and descriptions:

Adyghe

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It is difficult to distinguish it from cottage cheese by its taste. Also it has the same soft and grainy texture and contains a lot of easily absorbed calcium.

Almette cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Traditionally, it comes with a variety of additives, such as herbs or garlic. Ideal for a healthy and hearty breakfast.

 

Aperifre

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Its texture also resembles curd. Soft cheese is sold in circles, as an addition to alcoholic beverages.

Gervais

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Released in packs like butter. It contains a large amount of cream and milk.

Mascarpone cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This cheese is traditionally made from heavy cream. It is mainly used to create desserts, such as Tiramisu.

 

Mozzarella

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

The famous species is traditionally produced from buffalo milk. Cheese is used to make pizza and is rarely consumed as a standalone product.

Ricotta cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

A cheese with a delicate creamy taste and a curdled texture.

Tofu

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Tofu is a cheese that is ideal for vegetarians. Instead of animal protein, it contains soy.

 

Philadelphia

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It is a cheese with a soft, slightly sweetish flavor. It is used to create rolls of the same name.

Hard and semi-hard cheese varieties

They last much longer than soft varieties, so they acquire a dense structure. In turn, hard cheeses, photos and descriptions, which will be presented below, are divided into boiled and uncooked, as well as sour milk and rennet.

Residents of our country buy semi-hard and hard varieties more often than soft ones: they are universal in terms of use. They can be eaten with slices of bread, added to various dishes: soups, salads, pastries, etc.

The most popular types of cheese:

Parmesan

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a cheese with a slightly sour salty flavor. It has a crumbly structure, so it is not suitable for making sandwiches.

Cheddar

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a fermented milk product with a yellowish tinge and a pleasant nutty taste. Cheddar has a plastic structure.

Russian or Kostroma

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

The product belongs to types of semi-hard varieties. It has small eyes and a slightly salty taste. It is in high demand because it is inexpensive.

Gouda

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This cheese is traditionally produced in Holland, but there are several manufacturing companies in Russia that supply and sell this cheese. Gouda has a pleasant delicate taste and melts very well.

Mimolet

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is the most interesting cheese by description. It has bright orange undertones and a nutty fruit cheese. Many people are afraid to buy Mimolet because microscopic mites are used to ripen it.

Cantal

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a hard cheese with a spicy taste. The longer the aging of the product, the brighter and sharper its taste. A distinctive feature of Cantal is its low calorie content. They are preferred by athletes and heat. who follows the figure.

Parmigiano Reggiano

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a versatile Italian cheese. It can be added to all snacks, baked goods, and pasta. Parmigiano is resistant to high temperatures and does not melt well.

Grano Padano

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a grainy hard cheese that ripens for 1.5 to 2 years. The product is considered very high-calorie in 100 g of cheese – 383 Kcal, so it is better not to eat it for people with excess weight and atherosclerosis.

Poshekhonsky

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This cheese production is carried out in Belarus. For its maturation, rennet and pasteurized cow’s milk are used.

Blue cheeses

The second name for such a product is blue or a product with blue mold. It is very easy to distinguish a quality product from a spoiled one. The first one has a pleasant taste and a pleasant mold. This variety is not produced in Russia due to its high cost. In European countries, the production of mold cheeses is put on stream and it is quite difficult for these companies to compete.

Mold can have a variety of shades, from blue and gray to orange and bright red.

The most popular types of blue cheese:

Roquefort

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is blue cheese. It is not only on the crust, but also inside the product. In terms of protein and nutrient content, Roquefort is not inferior to expensive meats. It is kept in special caves under certain temperature conditions and air humidity.

Dor Blue

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

The cheese recipe was created in the middle of the 20th century and is still not widely known. Dor Blue’s recipe is kept in strict confidence. It is made from cow’s milk with the addition of noble mold. Unlike other moldy species, Dor Blue has a less salty taste.

Stilton

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a cheap counterpart to Dor Blue. It is kept for about 9 months. Perfumers appreciated the unsurpassed aroma of the product so much that they began to add it to their perfume compositions.

Livano

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a fermented milk product with a red mold. Cider, grapes and penicillin are used for its fermentation. Livano is made only from high-quality cow’s milk, and it is kept for about 6 months. This kind with mold is valuable because it leaves an interesting aftertaste.

Epuiss

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

The cheese is stored in special rooms with wooden lattice shelves. After red mold appears on the surface of the product, it is treated with a saline solution. This helps prevent mold from getting inside.

Melted cheese

It would be more correct to call it a cheese product. The technology for the production of processed foods is practically the same in all cases. Ingredients. which are used in the creation process: sugar, salt, milk powder, various additives. There are several types of processed cheese:

Pasty

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It resembles sour cream in consistency and is high in fat. Such a product is usually sold in jars with a lid. Available without additives (creamy) or with flavorings.

Slised

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This cheese can be cut into pieces because it has a dense structure. Chunks are produced, usually in foil packaging. May contain up to 70% fat.

Sweet

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

This is a regular processed cheese, to which sugar, cocoa, chicory and syrup are added. It is easy to distinguish a quality product from a low-quality one. The first contains dairy foods, and the second contains vegetable oils.

Smoked cheeses

Chechil or pigtail

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It is made from goat or sheep milk. A special ferment and enzymes are added to it. The ingredients are heated to curl and make fine threads out of them. After cooking, Chechil is tested for quality: if its threads are placed in the eye of a needle, then the product is prepared in compliance with the technology.

Sausage cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It is made from cottage cheese, hard cheese, cream, butter and spices. The ingredients are used to form loaves, which are smoked in special ovens for several hours.

Gruyere cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It is made in Switzerland. It has a tangy nutty flavor.

Soft varieties are also smoked – Gouda, Mozzarella., Cheddar.

Salty cheese varieties

The peculiarity of the production of foods lies in the fact that they are kept for 1 to 3 months in a special brine for full maturation. The consistency of these cheeses will be brittle and crumbly.

Names of brynza species:

Brynza

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It can be prepared from different raw materials (cow, sheep milk, rennet). Bryndza production time is from 20 to 60 days. Before serving, it is advisable to rinse the product with boiled water, otherwise it will seem too salty.

Suluguni

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

The weight of one bar produced is up to 4 kg. Suluguni contains about 40% fat and 5-7% salt.

Feta cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

In structure, it looks more like fat cottage cheese. Feta ripens from 3 months or more.

Types of cheeses by raw materials used

The types of cheeses, the description and photo of which were given earlier, are made mainly from cow’s milk. But other raw materials are also used for the production of foods: goat, sheep and mare’s milk.

Goat’s milk cheeses:

Camembert

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Its middle is soft and tender, and the crust tastes like forest mushrooms.

Bangon

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It has a soft consistency and is made in France. Bangon is made from uncooled goat milk. A special feature of this delicacy is that it is stored in chestnut leaves during ripening.

Sainte-Maur-de-Touraine Cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

There are straws inside the product, thanks to which ventilation occurs inside it. Sainte-Maur-de-Touraine is a moldy variety.

The rarest varieties are made from kumis – mare’s milk. In Russia, the production of such delicacies has not yet been established. In large cities of the country – Moscow and St. Petersburg, it comes mainly from European countries and Kazakhstan.

Sheep’s milk cheeses are made in the south of Russia. Well-known varieties: Tushinsky, Yerevan, suluguni, Chanakh, Brynza, Roquefort. These species have a whiter color than those made from cow’s milk.

Protein from goat, sheep and mare’s milk is better absorbed than from cow’s. Therefore, foods made from these raw materials are a great alternative for people who suffer from allergies.

Types of cheese by percentage of fat

This is the last criterion classification. According to it, all cheeses are divided into:

  • low-fat – up to 10% (Tofu, Chechil, grained, pickled varieties);
  • bold – from 20% to 30% (Ricotta, Dzhugas);
  • medium fat content – from 30% to 40% (Grano Padano, Parmesan);
  • fatty – from 40 to 45% (Suluguni, Feta, Brynza);
  • very fatty – 45% – 60% (Gouda, Russian);
  • high fat – more than 60% (Stilton, Roquefort).

What to serve cheese with: which is the best for salad, baking

What varieties are best for salad and hot dishes – this question is asked by many housewives. Sometimes delicious cheese in combination with other foods loses its taste and spoils the dish. Therefore, you need to know what each variety is combined with and how best to serve it.

Creamy and curd (Brie, Camembert) are best eaten with tortillas or pita bread. They are also combined with semi-sweet wine and fruit: peaches. grapes, apples.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Fetaxa should be served with salads based on vegetables and herbs. Salad popular with housewives, with Feta – “Greek”.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Semi-hard varieties (Gouda, Edam, Russian) are an excellent ingredient for hot dishes. Cheese melts well, so they are used for baking, making lasagna, pasta. Semi-hard varieties also pair well with wines and fruits.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Blue cheeses can be used as an ingredient in fruit or vegetable salads. They are delicious to eat in combination with croutons and crackers.

Hard varieties are more suitable for sandwiches and hot dishes of Julien, Fondue. Parmesan is ideal for pasta as it does not spread and gives the pasta a special flavor.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Melted curds are a versatile product. It can be added to soups and baked goods, or spread over slices of bread.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

What foods should not be combined with cheese

All types of cheeses must not be combined with citrus fruits. This is due to the fact that one product interrupts the taste of another. Instead of citrus fruits on a plate of cheese, it is better to serve dried fruits and a small cup of honey.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

It is better not to eat young varieties of cheeses with tart drinks – port or cognac. For such drinks, hard cheese, for example, Roquefort, is more suitable. Semi-hard and hard cheeses do not go well with champagne. It is best to serve soft varieties with this drink.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

How much does cheese cost for 1 kg?

It is better not to eat young varieties of cheeses with tart drinks – port or cognac. For such drinks, hard cheese, for example, Roquefort, is more suitable. Semi-hard and hard cheeses do not go well with champagne. It is best to serve soft varieties with this drink.

Several factors affect the cost of a product: the type of cheese, the manufacturer and the price policy of the outlet. So, for example, for 1 kg of Poshekhonsky or Russian cheese, the buyer will pay 7-8 euros, and for Roquefort – up to 800 euros.

List of the approximate cost of different types of cheese per 1 kg

  • Mozzarella – 11 euros
  • Parmesan – 14 euros
  • Curd cheese – 9 euros
  • Processed – 4 euros
  • Camembert – 15 euros
  • Cheddar – 9 euros
  • Dor Bru (with blue mold) – 22 euros
  • Mascarpone – 17 euros
  • Ricotta – 8 euros

There is no guarantee that by giving a lot of money, you will receive a quality product. It is better to buy farm cheeses than factory-made ones. The latter is made with the addition of milk replacer and vegetable oils. To make the factory cheese lie longer, preservatives are added to it: potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate. There will be more harm than good from such foods.

But where can you buy good cheese in Moscow? Better to order the product from farmers and farms. It is brewed only from natural milk using enzymes and beneficial lactic acid bacteria. Farm cheese is rich in trace elements, protein and vitamins.

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

Recipe for making cheese at home from milk and cottage cheese

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese

For beginners, cheese makers recommend taking cow’s milk in order to try making cheese for the first time. The recipe for the preparation of the product is simple and it will be described step by step

Ingredients:

  • unpasteurized milk (preferably farm) – 5 liters;
  • rennet – ¼ tsp;
  • mesophilic starter culture – 1 packet with 0.1 EA.

Technology for making treats at home:

Cheese – product description. 40 most popular types of cheese
  1. Heat milk to 36 degrees. To determine the temperature, use a thermometer, because errors can cause damage to the product.
  2. Pour the leaven into the warmed milk and let it stand for 30 minutes.
  3. Dissolve ¼ tsp rennet in 30 ml of cold water. The solution must be mixed thoroughly and then poured into milk.
  4. Leave the milk until clots appear (on average 20-30 minutes). It is unacceptable to stir it, otherwise important fermentation processes will be disrupted.
  5. Check the cheese starter for cleanliness. To do this, dip a knife 10 cm into the milk. If nothing remains on the knife, then the leaven is ready.
  6. Stir the whole mass for 3-5 minutes to separate the whey. A wooden spatula or long spoon is ideal for mixing curd.
  7. After stirring, divide the contents of the pan into the whey dough and whey. To do this, the whole mass is transferred to a cheese mold so that the whey is glass, and the curd mass remains. The whey does not need to be poured out; it can be left to cook the Ricotta.
  8. In the form, the cheese is turned every 30 minutes. If everything is done carefully, then it will not fall apart and not lose its shape. In total, the head is turned over 6-8 times. At this moment, it is salted on each side.
  9. The resulting mass is removed in the refrigerator for 6-10 hours directly in the form.
  10. Cheese made with homemade milk can be cut into cubes and served with herbs and vegetables. This is a great homemade snack.

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