Trends in modern dietology

Losing weight, increasing physical activity, eating more fruits and vegetables, and avoiding meat are recommended as means of reducing the risk of colon and rectal cancer. When it comes to cancer, factors related to hormonal and reproductive functions are relevant, but diet and lifestyle also play a role. Obesity and alcohol use are risk factors for women with breast cancer, while fruits and vegetables rich in fiber, phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins are effective in protecting against breast cancer. Low levels of vitamin B12 (below a certain threshold) increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Numerous studies suggest that low intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The incidence of diabetes is on the rise in the world. Studies show that more than 80% of diabetes is caused by being overweight and obese. Physical activity, whole grain foods, and plenty of high-fiber fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of diabetes.

Eating low-fat foods has become popular these days as the media has foisted on the public the notion that any fat is bad for health. However, some scientists do not consider a low-fat diet to be healthy because such a diet can increase blood triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A diet containing 30-36% fat is not harmful and improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system, provided that we are talking about monounsaturated fat, obtained, in particular, from peanuts and peanut butter. This diet provides a 14% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a 13% reduction in blood triglycerides, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol remains unchanged. People who eat a large amount of refined grains (in the form of pasta, bread, or rice) reduce their risk of gastrointestinal cancer by 30-60%, compared to people who eat a minimum amount of refined grains.

Soy, rich in isoflavones, is extremely effective in reducing the risk of breast and prostate cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. Choosing a low-fat diet may not be healthy because low-fat soy milk and tofu do not contain enough isoflavones. Moreover, the use of antibiotics has a negative effect on the metabolism of isoflavones, so the regular use of antibiotics can negatively affect the positive effect of soy consumption.

Grape juice improves blood circulation by 6% and protects low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from oxidation by 4%. The flavonoids in grape juice reduce the tendency for blood clots to form. Thus, regular consumption of grape juice, rich in phytochemicals, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Grape juice, in this sense, is more effective than wine. Dietary antioxidants play a significant role in the prevention of age-related cataracts by oxidizing lipid proteins in the lens of the eye. Spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, and other leafy vegetables rich in the carotenoid lutein may reduce the risk of cataracts.

Obesity continues to be the scourge of humanity. Obesity triples the risk of colon cancer. Moderate exercise improves health and helps manage weight. In people who exercise for half an hour to two hours once a week, blood pressure drops by two percent, resting heart rate by three percent, and body weight decreases by three percent. You can achieve the same results by walking or cycling five times a week. Women who exercise regularly are less at risk of breast cancer. Women who exercise an average of seven hours a week reduce their risk of breast cancer by 20% compared to women who lead a sedentary lifestyle. Women who exercise an average of 30 minutes daily reduce their risk of breast cancer by 10-15%. Even short walks or bike rides reduce the risk of breast cancer just as effectively as more intense exercise. High protein diets such as the Zone diet and the Atkins diet are widely promoted in the media. People continue to be attracted to questionable medical practices such as “colon cleansing.” Chronic use of “cleansers” often leads to dehydration, syncope and electrolyte abnormalities, and ultimately colon dysfunction. However, some people feel that they periodically need internal cleansing of the body in order to improve the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. They are convinced that contaminants and toxins form in the colon and cause a bunch of diseases. Laxatives, fiber and herbal capsules, and teas are used to “cleanse the colon of debris.” In fact, the body has its own purification system. Cells in the gastrointestinal tract are renewed every three days.

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