Slitted micromphale (Paragymnopus perforans)

  • Division: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
  • Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
  • Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
  • Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
  • Order: Agaricales (Agaric or Lamellar)
  • Family: Omphalotaceae (Omphalotaceae)
  • Genus: Paragymnopus (Paragymnopus)
  • Type: Paragymnopus perforans


  • Agaricus androsaceus Schaeffer (1774)
  • Agaric fir Batsch (1783)
  • Agaric piercing Hoffmann (1789)
  • Micromphale perforans (Hoffmann) Gray (1821)
  • Marasmus piercing (Hoffmann) Fries (1838) [1836-38]
  • Androsaceus perforans (Hoffmann) Patouillard (1887)
  • Marasmius fir (Batsch) Quélet (1888)
  • Chamaeceras piercing (Hoffmann) Kuntze (1898)
  • Heliomyces perforans (Hoffmann) Singer (1947)
  • Marasmiellus perforans (Hoffmann) Antonín, Halling & Noordeloos (1997)
  • Gymnopus perforans (Hoffmann) Antonín & Noordeloos (2008)
  • Paragymnopus perforans (Hoffmann) J.S. Oliveira (2019)

Micromphale gapped (Paragymnopus perforans) photo and description

General remarks

In the modern classification, the species is separated into a separate genus – Paragymnopus and has the current name Paragymnopus perforans, but some authors use the name Gymnopus perforans or Micromphale perforans.

According to another classification, the taxonomy looks like this:

  • Family: Marasmiaceae
  • Genus: Gymnopus
  • See: Gymnopus piercing

Small mushrooms that, under suitable weather conditions, can grow in large quantities on spruce needles.

head: Initially convex, then becoming prostrate, thin, smooth, brown, with a slight pinkish tinge in wet weather, fading to cream when dry, slightly darker in the center. The cap diameter is on average 0,5–1,0 (up to 1,7) cm.

Records: whitish, cream, sparse, free or slightly descending on the stem.

Micromphale gapped (Paragymnopus perforans) photo and description

Leg: up to 3–3,5 cm high, 0,6–1,0 mm thick, light brown under the cap and further to dark brown and black, rigid, hollow, with pubescence along the entire length.

Micromphale gapped (Paragymnopus perforans) photo and description

At the base, it has a slight thickening covered with dark hairs; thin black filaments of hyphae extend from the stem, which can practically be attached to the substrate (needle).

Micromphale gapped (Paragymnopus perforans) photo and description

Pulp: thin, whitish to brownish, with a pronounced unpleasant smell of rotten cabbage (characteristic).

Споры: 5–7 x 3–3,5 µm, elliptical, smooth. The size of the disputes may vary among different authors. Spore powder: whitish-cream.

It occurs in coniferous or mixed forests, grows in large groups on the needles of coniferous trees – primarily spruce; there are also references to the growth on the needles of pine, cedar.

May to November.


Micromphale pitted differs from similar species in key features: the color of the cap and size (the height of the fungus is on average no more than 3 cm, the diameter of the cap is usually 0,5–1,0 cm), the presence of a putrid-sour smell and pubescence along the entire length of the stem, growth , usually on spruce needles.

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