Injury

General description of the disease

 

It is a closed tissue damage without a visible violation of the integrity of the skin. They usually arise from impacts and falls, and is a local reaction to a traumatic agent. Affected tissues change color, swell, hemorrhages appear, muscle fiber breaks may occur[3].

 

Contusion is the most common injury in adults and children. Bruises can be accompanied by abrasions, fractures and dislocations.

The degree of bruising

Depending on the severity, bruises are classified into:

 
  1. 1 bruises of the XNUMXst degree practically painless and do not need treatment, they disappear in 4-5 days. At the same time, the skin is practically not damaged, slight scratches and abrasions are possible;
  2. 2 bruises of the II degree, as a rule, are accompanied by edema and bruising, which is associated with rupture of muscle tissue. At the same time, the patient experiences acute pain syndrome;
  3. 3 contusion of III degree often accompanied by dislocation or severe damage to muscles and tendons. Contusions of the III degree include injuries of the joints, coccyx and head;
  4. 4 contusion of IV degree disrupts full-fledged vital activity, damaged organs and parts of the body cannot function normally.

Causes of bruises

A bruise can occur as a result of a blow to the surface of the skin or when a person falls. The severity of the injury is determined by such factors as the patient’s age, the mass and shape of the traumatic agent, the vastness of the affected area and the proximity to other organs.

 

With a bruise, the skin and tissues that are directly under them suffer. As a rule, the integrity of the tissues is not violated, but the capillaries rupture.

Symptoms of bruises

The first symptoms of a bruise are a pronounced pain syndrome, hemorrhage at the site of capillary rupture and hematoma. Severe unbearable pain may indicate bone damage.

Immediately after the injury, the patient experiences severe pain, which becomes more moderate after 5-10 minutes. Sometimes after 2-3 hours the pain syndrome intensifies again. This is due to the appearance of traumatic edema, hemorrhage and hematoma formation. If large vessels are damaged, bleeding inside the tissues can last up to 24 hours.

On the first day, a bluish hematoma appears at the site of the injury, which after 4-5 days acquires a yellowish tint. Traumatic edema and hematoma can resolve within 2-3 weeks.

 

Symptoms of a bruise depend on the injured site:

  • bruised ribs often accompanied by an extensive cyanotic hematoma due to damage to a large number of capillaries. A large bruise in the ribs indicates that the skin has suffered the most. The absence of a hematoma after hitting the ribs indicates a serious injury. With serious damage to the ribs, the patient experiences pain not only during touching, but also at rest. Pains follow the patient even in sleep, in the morning it is difficult to get out of bed;
  • tailbone injury Is one of the most painful injuries. As a rule, the patient gets a similar bruise during the icy conditions. A bruise of the tailbone is accompanied by a severe pain syndrome, up to fainting;
  • bruised leg Is a common injury. The patient experiences pain, redness appears at the site of the injury due to hemorrhage into the muscle tissue. After a few days, the purple hematoma turns yellow. With a bruised knee, its mobility is impaired, the person begins to limp. With a bruised lower leg, the leg swells greatly and the patient can hardly stand on the heel. With an ankle injury, in addition to the standard swelling and pain, the patient may experience numbness in the foot and toes. A bruise of the hip joint is also accompanied by severe pain;
  • with contusion of the soft tissues of the back the patient experiences severe pain during bends, turns and during active movement;
  • contusion of the soft tissues of the head in addition to hematoma, it may be accompanied by dizziness, fainting, visual impairment, nausea;
  • bruised hand often resembles fracture symptoms. At the site of the injury, the patient experiences severe pain, traumatic edema and hematoma appear;
  • bruised finger… Most often, the thumb suffers from bruises, since it is opposed to the rest in its anatomical structure.

Complications with bruises

Unfortunately, it is not always possible to determine the severity of the injury by external symptoms. The consequences of some injuries can be very serious. A brain injury can cause a concussion or hemorrhage, which can lead to the death of the patient.

In case of unbearable persistent pain, it is necessary to consult a traumatologist so that he excludes the possibility of a fracture.

 

In the absence of adequate therapy, a hematoma, which is an accumulation of blood, may begin to fester.

If, as a result of injury, blood accumulates in the joint, then hemarthrosis may develop, which can only be treated surgically.

A bruised abdomen can cause damage and malfunction of internal organs. A severe bruise to the chest can trigger cardiac arrest.

 

Prevention of bruises

It is difficult to give any advice on the prevention of bruises. It is necessary on the street and in everyday life to carefully look under the feet and around. Athletes are at risk of injury in terms of contusions. For them, the most effective means of dealing with such injuries is to strengthen the body so that they can recover faster.

Treatment of bruises in mainstream medicine

In the first hours after the injury, it is necessary to consult a traumatologist in order to find out if the joints, bones, ligaments, tendons are damaged. With severe injuries, the patient is shown rest.

Immediately after the injury, you can treat the damaged area with a special cooling agent. During the first day, cold should be applied to the site of the injury, but breaks should be taken every 2 hours in order to prevent hypothermia of the tissues.

 

In order to limit the spread of traumatic edema, a pressure bandage can be applied. In case of bruised limbs, it is better to keep them on a hill. Pain relievers can be taken with intense pain.

At the end of the day, the cold is canceled and treatment is prescribed, aimed at restoring damaged tissues. To do this, use anti-inflammatory ointments and gels. After a few days, you can add physiotherapy heat treatments.

In the presence of large cavities filled with fluid, surgical intervention is recommended. From the cavity with a syringe with a needle, fluid is aspirated and antibiotics are injected, thus preventing inflammation.

 

Useful foods for injury

In case of bruises, the patient’s diet should be balanced, so that the body recovers as quickly as possible from an injury. In order to accelerate the resorption of edema and hematoma, trace elements, folic acid and vitamins of group B, K, C, A are needed in sufficient quantities.

To do this, it is necessary to include the following foods in the patient’s diet: river fish, poultry, pork or beef liver, whole grains, plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, greens, low-fat dairy foods.

Traditional medicine for bruises

  1. 1 chop fresh burdock roots, pour over them with olive or sunflower oil, heat over low heat for 15 minutes, but do not boil. Then cool, filter and place in a dark glass container. Apply the resulting ointment to the sites of injury;
  2. 2 grind a piece of brown laundry soap, add to it 30 g of camphor and ammonia, 1 tbsp. lamp oil and turpentine. The resulting ointment is to treat injury sites;
  3. 3 our ancestors applied a copper penny to a fresh bruise;
  4. 4 lubricate bruises with chopped grass wormwood[2];
  5. 5 effectively relieves pain syndrome with bruises vinegar. It is necessary to make lotions from vinegar diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 4 several times a day;
  6. 6 to prevent the spread of edema and hematoma, you need to apply gruel from dry or fresh grass badyaga to the damaged area;
  7. 7 3-4 after receiving a bruise, rub the injured area with camphor alcohol;
  8. 8 Epsom salt baths are shown for injured limbs;
  9. 9 white cabbage leaves cope well with edema. They can be applied several times a day to areas of injury for 40-50 minutes;
  10. 10 well relieve pain with bruises, chopped raw potatoes, which are applied to injured places;
  11. 11 in the fight against hematomas, compresses with hot mashed boiled beans are effective[1];
  12. 12 compresses with gruel of crushed aloe and honey;

Dangerous and harmful foods for injury

In order to prevent the further development of post-traumatic edema and hematoma, it is necessary to minimize the consumption of foods that contain vitamin E: ginger, rose hips, almonds, sunflower seeds, prunes, sorrel, garlic.

Information sources
  1. Herbalist: golden recipes for traditional medicine / Comp. A. Markov. – M .: Eksmo; Forum, 2007 .– 928 p.
  2. Popov A.P. Herbal textbook. Treatment with medicinal herbs. – LLC “U-Factoria”. Yekaterinburg: 1999.— 560 p., Ill.
  3. Wikipedia, article “Bruise”.
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The administration is not responsible for any attempt to use the information provided, and does not guarantee that it will not harm you personally. The materials cannot be used to prescribe treatment and make a diagnosis. Always consult your specialist doctor!

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