According to statistics, 90% of the population is not satisfied with their appearance. At the same time, most of the noticeable problems with weight are not present. It happens that the desire to lose weight becomes an obsession. This disease is called anorexia by doctors. Today, anorexia is widespread enough, but not everyone knows it “in person”. Usually, people who suffer from this disease achieve weight loss by three methods: through strict diets, high physical activity, and with the help of cleansing procedures.
Approximately 95% of patients with anorexia are women. Since adolescence, girls want to get closer to the” fashionable ” standards. They torment themselves with diets, chasing a slim figure. Most patients are among girls 12-25 years old and, as a rule, not overweight (calorizer). But the complexes that are laid down from adolescence, as well as other factors that contribute to the development of anorexia, can appear much later.
Causes of anorexia
Anorexia is a disease that is difficult to treat. Its causes and symptoms are extremely complex. Sometimes it takes years to fight. The mortality statistics are striking: in 20%, it ends sadly.
According to scientists, the impetus for anorexia can be not only mental disorders. Dutch researchers studied the DNA of patients with anorexia. It turned out that in the body of 11% of patients there are the same genetic prerequisites. Therefore, scientists believe that there is no doubt that there are hereditary factors that increase the likelihood of developing this disease.
French scientists have found that anorexia, like the use of ecstasy, affects the center of control of appetite and pleasure in our brain. So, the very feeling of hunger can cause addiction, which is similar to drug addiction.
Anorexia can occur as a result of a hormonal imbalance in the body or as a result of upbringing. If the mother was obsessed with her weight and diets, then the daughter may eventually develop complexes that will give rise to anorexia.
A common cause of the development of the disease is the peculiarity of the patient’s psyche. As a rule, these are people with low self-esteem and excessively high demands on themselves. Sometimes the cause can be stressful factors. Severe stress changes the production of hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain, which can lead to depression and impaired appetite.
Features of the disease
Repeatedly, doctors witness how people react with envy to anorexics, as they can lose weight without feeling the need for food. Unfortunately, they pay attention only to the first manifestation of this disease – a problem-free loss of body weight. They do not want to realize the danger of the disease. After all, patients suffer around the clock from a sense of their own imperfection, are frightened by their own phobias.
Anorexics constantly experience a state of anxiety and depression. They almost lose control of their consciousness. These people are obsessed with thinking about extra calories.
Most patients, being in this state, continue to assure that they have no health problems. Attempts to persuade and talk end in defeat. The whole difficulty lies in the fact that a person can not trust anyone in this state, because, in fact, he does not believe himself. Without realizing the reality, it is hard to stop and master yourself.
The main signs of anorexia:
- The desire to lose weight at any cost;
- Fear of getting better;
- Obsessive ideas about food (dieting, manic calorie counting, narrowing the circle of interests in losing weight);
- Frequent refusal to eat (the main arguments: “I recently ate”, “I’m not hungry”, ” No appetite»);
- The use of rituals (for example, too careful chewing, “picking” in the plate, the use of miniature dishes);
- Feelings of guilt and anxiety after eating;
- Avoiding holidays and various events;
- The desire to drive yourself in training;
- Aggressiveness in defending one’s own beliefs;
- Sleep disturbance;
- Stopping menstruation;
- Depressive state;
- The feeling of losing control of your own life;
- Rapid weight loss (by 30% or more of the age norm);
- Weakness and dizziness;
- Constant chilliness;
- Decreased libido.
These signs are typical for many losing weight, which is already a wake-up call. When a person becomes obsessed and begins to perceive himself in a distorted way, for example, too fat at a normal body weight,then this is already a tocsin.
Treatment of anorexia
Society dictates to us the fashion for everything, including the idea of beauty. But in recent years, the image of a skinny girl is gradually fading into the past. Designers try to choose healthy girls for their work.
In the treatment of anorexia, the key elements are improvement of the somatic state, behavioral, cognitive and family psychotherapy. Pharmacotherapy is at best a supplement to other types of psychotherapy. Essential components of treatment are alimentary rehabilitation and measures aimed at restoring body weight.
Cognitive behavioral therapy will help in the normalization of body weight. It is aimed at correcting the distorted perception of oneself and restoring a sense of self-worth.
Psychotherapy is sometimes supplemented by medication to restore the metabolism and normal psychoemotional state. In severe cases, patients need to be hospitalized. The treatment of anorexics is carried out by a whole team of doctors: a psychiatrist, a psychotherapist, an endocrinologist and a nutritionist.
Rehabilitation programs usually use emotional care and support, as well as a variety of behavioral therapy techniques that provide a combination of reinforcing stimuli that combine exercise, bed rest, in addition, priority is given to the target body weight, desired behaviors and informative feedback.
The therapeutic nutrition of anorexic patients is an important part of their treatment. With chronic fasting, the need for energy is reduced. Therefore, weight gain can be promoted by first providing a relatively low intake of calories and then gradually increasing it (calorizator). There are several schemes for increasing nutrition, compliance with which guarantees the absence of side effects and complications in the form of edema, mineral metabolism disorders, and damage to the digestive organs.
Possible outcome of the disease:
- Recurrent (recurring) course;
- Death as a result of irreversible changes in the internal organs. According to statistics, without treatment, the mortality rate of patients with anorexia nervosa is 5-10 %.
Everything in the world has its limits, and beauty is no exception. Unfortunately, not everyone knows when to say “stop”to themselves. After all, a slender body is beautiful! Take care of your health.