In this article, with the support of specialists from the Maria Mama charity organization, which conducts free master classes with certified Rossoyuzspas rescuers in Moscow, we have collected tips that help children quickly and correctly provide first aid.
First aid for loss of consciousness
– Reaction to sound (call by name, clap hands near ears);
– The presence of a pulse (with four fingers, check the pulse on the neck, the duration is at least 10 seconds. The pulse is felt on both sides of the neck);
– The presence of breathing (it is necessary to lean towards the child’s lips or use a mirror).
If you do not detect a reaction to at least one of the above signs of life, you must proceed to conduct cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and do it continuously until the ambulance arrives.
– Unfasten clothing buttons, waist belt; – With the thumb, lead up to the chest along the abdominal cavity, grope for the xiphoid process; – Depart from the xiphoid process of 2 fingers and in this place do an indirect heart massage; – For an adult, an indirect heart massage is done with two hands, putting one on top of the other, for a teenager and a child – with one hand, for a small child (up to 1,5-2 years old) – with two fingers; – CPR cycle: 30 chest compressions – 2 breaths into the mouth; – With artificial respiration, it is necessary to throw back the head, raise the chin, open the mouth, pinch the nose and inhale into the victim’s mouth; – When helping children, the breath should not be full, for infants – very small, approximately equal to the volume of a child’s breath; – After 5-6 cycles of CPR (1 cycle = 30 compressions: 2 breaths), it is necessary to check the pulse, breathing, pupillary response to light. In the absence of a pulse and breathing, resuscitation should be continued until the ambulance arrives; – As soon as a pulse or breathing appears, CPR should be stopped and the victim should be brought to a stable position (raise the arm up, bend the leg at the knee and turn it over to the side).
It’s important: if there are people around you, ask them to call an ambulance before starting resuscitation. If you are providing first aid alone – you can’t waste time calling an ambulance, you need to start CPR. An ambulance can be called after 5-6 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it has about 2 minutes, after which it is necessary to continue the action.
First aid when a foreign body enters the respiratory tract (asphyxia)
Partial asphyxia: breathing is difficult, but there is, the child begins to cough strongly. In this case, he needs to be allowed to cough himself, coughing is more effective than any assistance measures.
Complete asphyxia characterized by noisy attempts to breathe, or vice versa, silence, inability to breathe, red, and then bluish complexion, loss of consciousness.
– Put the victim on his knee upside down, make progressive claps along the spine (the direction of the blow to the head); – If the above method does not help, it is necessary, while in a vertical position, to grab the victim from behind with both hands (one clenched into a fist) and sharply press on the area between the navel and the xiphoid process. This method can only be applied to adults and older children, since it is more traumatic; – If the result is not achieved and the foreign body is not removed after two methods, they must be alternated; – When providing first aid to an infant, it must be put on the hand of an adult (the face lies in the palm of an adult, fingers between the child’s mouth, support the neck and head) and apply 5 blows between the shoulder blades towards the head. After turn over and check the child’s mouth. Next – 5 clicks on the middle of the sternum (the head should be lower than the legs). Repeat 3 cycles and call an ambulance if it does not help. Continue until the ambulance arrives.
You can not: slapping the back in an upright position and trying to reach the foreign body with your fingers – this will cause the foreign body to go deeper into the airways and aggravate the situation.
First aid for drowning in water
True drowning is characterized by cyanosis of the skin and abundant foam from the mouth and nose. With this type of drowning, a person swallows a large amount of water.
– lean the victim over the knee; – By pressing on the root of the tongue, induce a gag reflex. Continue the action until all the water comes out; – If the reflex is not evoked, proceed to cardiopulmonary resuscitation; – Even if the victim was brought back to consciousness, it is always necessary to call an ambulance, since drowning has a high risk of complications in the form of pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, cardiac arrest.
Dry (pale) drowning occurs in ice or chlorinated water (hole, pool, bath). It is characterized by pallor, the presence of a small amount of “dry” foam, which will not leave marks if wiped off. With this type of drowning, a person does not swallow a large amount of water, and respiratory arrest occurs due to spasm of the airways.
immediately begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
First aid for electric shock
– Release the victim from the action of the current – push him away from the electrical object with a wooden object, you can use a thick blanket or something that does not conduct current; – Check the presence of a pulse and breathing, in their absence, proceed to cardiopulmonary resuscitation; – In the presence of a pulse and breathing, in any case, call an ambulance, since there is a high probability of cardiac arrest; – If a person fainted after an electric shock, bend his knees and put pressure on pain points (the junction of the nasal septum and upper lip, behind the ears, under the collarbone).
First aid for burns
The procedure for a burn depends on its degree.
Grade 1: redness of the skin surface, swelling, pain. Grade 2: redness of the skin surface, swelling, pain, blisters. Grade 3: redness of the skin surface, swelling, pain, blisters, bleeding. 4 degree: charring.
Since in everyday life we most often encounter the first two options for burns, we will consider the procedure for providing assistance for them.
In case of a first degree burn, it is necessary to place the damaged area of the skin under cold water (15-20 degrees, not ice) for 15-20 minutes. Thus, we cool the surface of the skin and prevent the burn from penetrating deep into the tissues. After that, you can anoint the burn with a healing agent. You can’t oil it!
With a second-degree burn, it is important to remember not to burst blisters that have appeared on the skin. Also, do not remove burnt clothes. It is necessary to apply a damp cloth to the burn or cold through the cloth and seek medical attention.
In case of eye burns, it is necessary to lower the face into a container of water and blink in the water, then apply a damp cloth to the closed eyes.
In case of alkali burns, it is necessary to treat the skin surface with a 1-2% solution of boric, citric, acetic acid.
In case of an acid burn, treat the skin with soapy water, water with soda, or just plenty of clean water. Apply a sterile bandage.
First aid in case of frostbite
– Get out into the heat Undress the baby and start GRADUAL warming. If the limbs are frostbitten, then lower them into water at room temperature, warm them for 40 minutes, gradually increasing the water temperature to 36 degrees; – Give plenty of warm, sweet drink – warm from the inside. – Apply wound healing ointment later; – If blisters, skin indurations appear, or if the sensitivity of the skin does not recover, seek medical attention.
You can not: rub the skin (with hands, cloth, snow, alcohol), warm the skin with nothing hot, drink alcohol.
First aid for heatstroke
Heatstroke or sunstroke is characterized by dizziness, nausea, and pallor. The victim must be taken into the shade, moistened bandages should be applied to the forehead, neck, groin, limbs and periodically changed. You can put a roller under your legs to ensure blood flow.
First aid for poisoning
– Give the victim plenty of water and induce vomiting by pressing on the root of the tongue, repeat the action until water comes out.
Important! You can not induce vomiting in case of poisoning with chemicals (acid, alkali), you just need to drink water.
First aid for bleeding
The procedure for assisting with bleeding depends on its type: capillary, venous or arterial.
Capillary bleeding – the most common bleeding from wounds, abrasions, minor cuts.
In case of capillary bleeding, it is necessary to clamp the wound, disinfect it and apply a bandage. In case of bleeding from the nose – tilt your head forward, clamp the wound with a cotton swab, apply cold to the area of the nose. If the blood does not stop within 15-20 minutes, call an ambulance.
Venous bleeding characterized by dark red blood, smooth flow, without a fountain.
put direct pressure on the wound, apply a few bandages and bandage the wound, call an ambulance.
Arterial bleeding observed with damage to the artery (cervical, femoral, axillary, brachial) and is characterized by a flowing flow.
– It is necessary to stop arterial bleeding within 2 minutes. – Press the wound with your finger, with axillary bleeding – with your fist, with femoral bleeding – press your fist on the thigh above the wound. – In extreme cases, apply a tourniquet for 1 hour, signing the time of applying the tourniquet.
First aid for fractures
– With a closed fracture, it is necessary to immobilize the limb in the position in which it was, bandage or apply a splint; – With an open fracture – stop the bleeding, immobilize the limb; – Seek medical attention.
First aid skills are something better to know but never use than not to know and be helpless in an emergency. Of course, such information is remembered better in practical classes, it is especially important to understand in practice, for example, the technique of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Therefore, if you are interested in this topic, we advise you to choose first aid courses for yourself and attend them.
For example, the organization “Maria Mama” with the support of the “Russian Union of Rescuers” monthly organizes a FREE practical seminar “School of First Aid for Children”, in more detail about which, you can