Fats

Contents

Fats are organic compounds consisting of glycerol esters, fatty acids and highly bioactive substances. Fats and fat-like substances are denoted by the general term – lipids.

In the human body, most of the lipids are concentrated in the subcutaneous tissue and adipose tissue. These compounds are found in muscle tissues, liver, and brain. In plants, fats can be found in fruits and seeds. In the plant world, the so-called oilseeds are most saturated with lipids.

Terminology complexities

You can talk about the important role of fats in the human body for a long time and a lot, especially since there are many little-known and very entertaining facts. But first, it is important to understand the terminology so as not to get confused.

Lipid is the main term. They denote the substance with a fat-soluble molecule. Simply put, all fats, fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and phospholipids in cell membranes are lipids.

Fatty acids are the building blocks of the body. They store energy, which the body converts into fuel when needed.

Triglycerides are lipids with a structure of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. All triglycerides are divided into 2 groups: saturated (found in meat and dairy products) and unsaturated acids (found in plant foods). From an anatomical point of view, the fat contained under the skin is also triglycerides.

Sterol (or sterol) is a subgroup of steroids that work on the principle of hormones. In the body they play the role of a structural part of the cells (there is in the membrane). Take part in metabolism, affect cholesterol levels: plant sterols block the absorption of “bad” cholesterol in the intestine.

Phospholipids – they have a structural role in the body. The cell membrane is made up of phospholipids. The performance of all cells depends on them. Most phospholipids are found in the membranes of liver, brain and heart cells. They are an important element of the sheath of the nerve trunks, are involved in blood coagulation and tissue regeneration.

Chemical and biological role

Speaking about the role of lipids for a living organism, it is first of all important to note that lipids are part of the cells of almost all types of tissues, and together with carbohydrates provide vital activity and energy metabolism. In addition, accumulating in the subcutaneous layers and around organs (in reasonable doses) they create a protective cushion: they provide protection from mechanical damage, provide thermal insulation.

Adipose tissue cells are a reservoir of nutrients that create the energy reserves of the body. By the way, the oxidation of 1 gram of fat gives the body 9 kilocalories. For comparison: when oxidizing a similar amount of proteins or carbohydrates, only 4 kilocalories of energy are produced.

Natural lipids are over 60 types of fatty acids with different properties. A fatty acid molecule is a special chain of interconnected carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms. The properties of fats depend on its length. The longer the chain, the more solid fats are formed. Liquid oils have a molecular structure with short strings of atoms.

The melting point of fats also depends on the molecule: the higher the molecular weight, the more difficult it is for fats to melt, and the worse they melt, the more difficult it is for the body to digest.

According to the quality of assimilation, fats are divided into three groups. Representatives of the first are absorbed by the body by 97-98%. They melt at temperatures below 36,6 degrees. If melting requires 37 degrees and above, such fats are absorbed in an amount of 90%. And only 70-80% will be able to assimilate if the substance needs at least 50-60 degrees Celsius to melt.

Classification of natural fats

Saturated Fat:

  • butter, milk fats;
  • meat, lard, animal fats;
  • palm, coconut and cocoa bean oil.

Unsaturated Fat:

  1. Monounsaturated:
    • olive oil;
    • peanut butter;
    • avocado;
    • olives;
    • poultry meat.
  2. Polyunsaturated:
    • fatty fish, fish oil;
    • linseed, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, cottonseed, soybean oil;
    • oil from wheat germ, walnut;
    • nuts and seeds.

The difference between saturated and unsaturated fats is in the chemical structure, and, therefore, their functions are also different.

Saturated fats are not as beneficial to the body as unsaturated fats. They negatively affect lipid metabolism, the functioning of the liver and, as nutritionists believe, are the cause of atherosclerosis.

The highest concentration of unsaturated fats is found in vegetable oils. The most striking in their chemical and biological properties are polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are vital substances for the body and are included in the list of substances indispensable for humans. Another name is vitamin F, but in fact, the properties of fats differ from real vitamins. Contained in all vital organs: in the brain, heart, liver, reproductive organs. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the embryo, the body of a newborn child and in the composition of breast milk has also been proven. The most saturated vitamin F is fish oil.

The role of polyunsaturated fats

Functions of polyunsaturated fats:

  • contribute to the excretion of cholesterol from the body, which helps to slow down the course of atherosclerotic changes;
  • make the walls of blood vessels elastic and reduce their permeability;
  • contribute to the prevention of ischemia;
  • strengthen the protective functions of the body, produce resistance to various infections and ionizing radiation.

Deficiency of polyunsaturated fats is one of the causes of coronary thrombosis.

According to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipids are divided into 3 groups:

  1. With high bioactivity. The content of polyunsaturated acids in them is 50-80%. It is enough to consume 20 g of fat to provide the body with the necessary substances. Sources: vegetable oils (corn, linseed, sunflower, hemp, soybean, cottonseed).
  2. With medium bioactivity. The content of polyunsaturated acids is below 50%. The daily requirement is contained in 50 g of lard, goose or chicken fat.
  3. With low bioactivity. This is butter and all kinds of milk fat, beef and mutton fat. They are not able to give the body the necessary norm of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols

All fats in the body can be divided into 3 groups:

  • triglycerides;
  • phospholipid;
  • sterols.

Almost 100% of the fat contained in the human body is in the form of triglycerides, 95% of dietary fats are also stored in this structure.

Triglyceride is a substance whose molecule consists of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerin molecules. Depending on the presence or absence of hydrogen atoms in the composition, triglycerides are saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.

The main role in the body is to provide energy. They are predominantly stored in adipose tissue, but some triglycerides are present inside the cells. An excessive amount of this type of lipid in the cells leads to the development of obesity. An excess of triglycerides in the liver tissues is fraught with fatty degeneration of the organ, and a high content in muscle tissue accelerates the development of type 2 diabetes.

Phospholipids are present in only 5% of food products. They can dissolve in water and fats. Due to this property, they are able to easily move through cell membranes. The most famous phospholipid is lecithin, which is found in the liver, eggs, peanuts, wheat germ, and soybeans.

Phospholipids are necessary for the body to maintain the function of cell membranes. Violation in their structure leads to liver disease, a violation of blood coagulation, liver, cardiovascular disease.

Sterols are a group of substances that include cholesterol (high and low density lipoproteins), testosterone, cortisol, and vitamin D.

In the group of lipids, there are 2 essential fatty acids for the human body, which it cannot produce on its own. These are linoleic and linolenic acids.

Linoleic is better known as Omega-6 fatty acid, and linolenic acid is known as omega-3 acid. Search for them best in seeds, nuts, oily marine fish.

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is an important component of most tissues in the human body. He takes part in the creation of new cells, hormones, intercellular membranes, in the absorption of vitamins, and accumulates energy. But the useful role of cholesterol is preserved only as long as its content does not go beyond the permissible limits (200-250 mg or 5,0 mmol / l). Exceeding the indicator increases the risk of developing cardiovascular accidents, obliterating atherosclerosis.

All cholesterol in the body forms three groups:

  • high density lipoproteins (“good” cholesterol);
  • low density lipoproteins (“bad” cholesterol);
  • very low density lipoproteins (negative effect).

“Bad” sterol particles are formed from fats obtained by eating large amounts of butter, very fatty meats, egg yolks and whole milk.

Every day, the body produces within 1 g of cholesterol. And almost all (0,8 g) is synthesized in the liver, and 0,2 g – in other cells. In addition, another half a gram of cholesterol comes from food. It is this dose received from the outside that it is important to try to regulate.

How to adjust cholesterol?

It is not difficult to debug the balance of cholesterol if you know the rules of dietology. Here are some tips to keep you healthy.

  1. Abandon refractory fats of animal nature.
  2. To exclude from the menu fried dishes and french fries.
  3. Eat no more than 3 egg yolks per week.
  4. Give preference to lean meat.
  5. Reduce the amount of consumed fat milk.
  6. Two-thirds of the daily diet should be made from plant foods rich in fiber.
  7. Drink lots of green tea.
  8. Introduce polyunsaturated fats into the diet.
  9. Take nicotinic acid, calcium, vitamins E and C.
  10. Eat fresh juices (beetroot, cucumber, carrot, apple, cabbage, orange, celery).
  11. Introduce foods rich in phytosterols (plant sterols that control cholesterol levels) into the diet: wheat germ, wild rice bran, sesame seeds, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, pistachios, flaxseeds, almonds, pine nuts, walnuts, avocados, olive oil.

Learning, sharing

Biologists have conducted many experiments before they understood the principle of assimilation of fats by the body. In the 1960s, Robert Wolpenheim and Fred Matson from Procter-and-Gamble determined that fats in the gastrointestinal tract do not fully hydrolyze. That is, under the influence of water, only two molecules of triglyceride are split, the third remains unchanged.

First, an enzyme contained in saliva acts on fats. At the next stage, an enzyme produced by the pancreas is included in the work. After double processing, fat is transported in portions to the small intestine. And what is interesting: portions of lipids do not enter the intestine arbitrarily, but only after the corresponding signal that the small intestine “sends” to the stomach.

Nature has created the human digestive system in such a way that fatty foods will not enter the intestines until it processes the previous portion. This explains the feeling of fullness and “full stomach” cleared after overeating, in particular high-calorie foods. How the intestine transmits these smart signals to the stomach, biologists cannot yet explain. But the fact remains.

Bile and bile acids help the body to finally process fats. They break down lipids into tiny particles, which are again affected by the enzyme lipase. After the final hydrolysis, monoglycerides and fatty acids are formed in the body. They pass through the walls of the intestinal cells and already in an updated form (in the form of fat droplets coated with protein) enter the bloodstream to be transported throughout the body.

The blood contains a significant amount of lipids of different types. Blood fat saturation changes throughout life. This is influenced by the nature of nutrition, age, body condition, hormonal levels. An increase in the rate of neutral fats indicates that the body is not properly using lipids from food.

Other causes of increased blood lipids:

  • starvation;
  • diabetes;
  • acute hepatitis;
  • exudative diathesis;
  • pancreatitis;
  • cholecystitis;
  • nephrosis.

Hyperlipidemia (increase in the level of fats) is observed with intoxication, impaired liver function.

The process of fat metabolism in the human body directly depends on the metabolism of carbohydrates. In cases of regular consumption of high-calorie foods (rich in carbohydrates) without the necessary expenditure of energy, the joules obtained from carbohydrates are converted into fats. The fight against dietary obesity is to reduce the calorie content of the diet. In the menu, focus on proteins, fats, vitamins and organic acids.

Pathological obesity is a consequence of disorders of the neurohumoral mechanisms of regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Excessive accumulation of lipids in cells and tissues flows into dystrophy.

Fats in food

Biologists have told: approximately one-fifth of the calories needed for energy production, a person should receive at the expense of fats. The daily need is determined taking into account several parameters:

  • age;
  • lifestyle;
  • health status.

People who lead an active life, go in for sports (especially professionally) need a diet with a high calorie content. Elderly, inactive, with a tendency to be overweight should cut calories.

For health, it is important to consider not only the amount of fat in the diet, but also the ratio between the consumption of different types of lipids. And remember some recommendations of nutritionists:

  • saturated acids worsen fat metabolism, liver health, increase the risk of atherosclerosis;
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids stabilize metabolic processes, remove “bad” cholesterol from the body;
  • the abuse of unsaturated fats (vegetable oils) causes an upset of the gastrointestinal tract, the formation of stones in the bile ducts.

Ideally, a “fat” diet consists of 40% vegetable oils and 60% animal fats. In old age, the proportion of vegetable fats should increase.

The ratio of fatty acids in the diet:

  • monounsaturated – 50% of all fats;
  • polyunsaturated – 25%;
  • saturated – 25%.

Trans fats – unsaturated fats artificially translated into saturated. Used in the food industry (sauces, mayonnaise, confectionery), although nutritionists strictly forbid them to use it. Fats that have undergone intense heating and oxidation (chips, french fries, donuts, belyashes, and deep-fried foods) also harm the body.

Harmful fats:

  • saturated fats;
  • low and very low density cholesterol;
  • trans fats.

An excess of “bad” lipids causes:

  • obesity;
  • diabetes;
  • cardiovascular diseases.

Saturated fats have a simpler molecular structure and are harmful to the human body, as they contribute to plaque growth and blockage of blood vessels.

Examples of products containing saturated fat:

  • margarine;
  • animal fat (kidney, white on meat, interior, butter);
  • coconut and palm oils;
  • fat meat;
  • dairy;
  • fast food;
  • confectionery.

As for meat and dairy products, the body needs this food, but low-fat options should be preferred.

The higher the amount of saturated fat consumed, the higher the level of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is mainly formed in the tissues of the liver and is required by the body in physiological quantities. Exceeding the norm leads to the development of heart disease and vascular problems.

Trans fats are liquid oils artificially converted into a solid form (margarines, cooking oils). Their task in cooking is to extend the shelf life of perishable products. Found in foods with a high glycemic index.

Healthy fats

Healthy fats are 2 types of unsaturated lipids: monounsaturated (omega-9) and polyunsaturated (omega-3, omega-6).

Omega-9, or oleic acid, contributes to the normal course of vital processes in the body. With its lack, cell membranes weaken, the balance of metabolism is disturbed. It is found in large quantities in olive oil.

Useful properties of Omega-9:

  • possesses immunostimulating properties;
  • prevents the formation of malignant tumors in the female breast;
  • reduces the risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease;
  • regulates cholesterol levels;
  • enhances protection against viruses and colds;
  • eliminates constipation, regulates the process of digestion;
  • improves memory;
  • relieves depression;
  • improves the condition of skin, nails, hair;
  • supplies energy.

Omega-3

Omega-3 plays an important role in life, but the body does not produce it on its own. It affects the functioning of the brain, heart, joints, sharpens eyesight and lowers cholesterol. It has anti-inflammatory effect and powerful antioxidant properties.

There are such products:

  • a fish;
  • sesame, rapeseed oil;
  • walnuts;
  • flaxseeds.

Useful properties of Omega-3:

  • speeds up the metabolism;
  • increases endurance;
  • activates the brain;
  • improves mood;
  • responsible for skin health;
  • promotes weight loss;
  • regulates hormonal balance.

Pregnant women and people with a high risk of developing cancer should consume foods rich in omega-3 acids. It is part of rehabilitation therapy after a heart attack, circulatory disorders in the brain, fractures, autoimmune diseases. Used in cosmetic products.

Omega-6

Omega-6 is found in sunflower, corn, soybean oils, wheat germ, pumpkin seeds, poppy seeds, sunflower seeds, walnuts. Insufficient amount leads to memory impairment, high blood pressure, frequent colds, skin diseases, chronic fatigue.

The human body is needed to reduce cholesterol, prevent and treat arthritis, protects nerve fibers from destruction (especially in diabetes), and relieves women from premenstrual syndrome. Without Omega-6, the body cannot produce prostaglandin Е1, which protects against premature aging, allergies and the development of heart disease.

Nutritionists advise to use Omega-3 and Omega-6 ranging from 1: 1 to 1: 4 – these proportions are optimal for the body.

Table of fat content in foods
Fat content in 100 g productProduct
Less than 20 gDairy products, low-fat cheeses, cereals, grains, legumes, offal, fish, seafood, mushrooms, eggs.
20-40 gSour cream, cottage cheese (homemade), pork, fatty chunks of beef, fatty fish, goose, sausages and sausages, canned fish, sweets, coconuts.
More than xnumxButter, margarine, fatty pork, duck, fish oil, nuts, seeds, smoked sausage, white chocolate, mayonnaise.

How to eat foods rich in fat: tips

  1. Abandon trans fat.
  2. Reduce the amount of saturated fat.
  3. Give preference to fats from natural products.
  4. Unrefined and raw oils are suitable only for dressing ready meals.
  5. Animal fats are suitable for frying.
  6. Store oil in a dark place in sealed containers.
  7. Eat marine fish and linseed oil regularly – rich in omega-Xnumx fats.
  8. The ratio of vegetable fats to animals – 1: 2, in old age – 2: 1.
  9. Cholesterol in the diet does not exceed 300 mg per day.
  10. The ratio of saturated fats to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated – 3: 4: 3.
  11. Fat in the daily diet should not exceed a third of the total calorie content.
  12. Select a source of saturated fat from lean, palm-sized cuts of meat and whole milk products.
  13. To get rid of excess fat when baking meat, use grills.
  14. Instead of sausages give preference to chicken breast and turkey.
  15. You can not completely abandon dairy – these products are extremely important for the body, including to control weight. But preference is better to give food with a lower fat content.
  16. Under normal conditions, the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet should match the proportion of 10: 12: 46.
  17. Most foods labeled “fat free” or “low fat” have a fairly high amount of carbohydrates.
  18. Read product labels. Be wary of foods containing palm oil or hydrogenated oils.

Individual daily requirement

For people who lead an active lifestyle, the consumption of fat should be reduced to 25% of the total daily caloric intake. To find out the rate of fat in grams, you can use the formula:

Total Fat (g) = (Total Calories x 30%) : 9

If there is no time to bother with solving mathematical problems, then you can apply another, easier formula:

1,3 x your weight = daily fat intake.

The best sources of healthy fats:

  • nuts: walnuts, almonds, pistachios;
  • fish: salmon, tuna, mackerel, trout, herring;
  • plant foods: olives, avocados;
  • oils: olive, sunflower.

Daily need for fats:

  • for men – 70-154 g;
  • for women – 60-102 g;
  • children under one year – 2,2-2,9 g per kilogram of weight;
  • older than a year – 40-97

Deficiency and oversupply: what are the dangers

Probably no one needs to explain that excessive consumption of fatty foods leads to obesity. And the shortest way to overweight is trans fats.

Obesity is not only an aesthetic problem. Excess weight is always paired with a bouquet of diseases. First of all, the cardiovascular system suffers from excess fatty tissue.

For obesity:

  • work of a liver and pancreas worsens;
  • development of oncological diseases is possible;
  • changes in the chemical composition of blood;
  • increases the risk of heart attacks, strokes, coronary heart disease;
  • hypertension and tachycardia appear;
  • it becomes difficult for the heart to pump blood around the body.

Obesity has become the number one problem worldwide. And last but not least thanks to modern food with a lot of saturated fats.

But no less problematic for the body is the lack of lipids. Women who follow the figure, or people who are overweight, sometimes completely exclude all fats from their diet. At the same time, probably, none of them thinks that the total rejection of fat can cause more serious problems than extra pounds.

In fact, fats have received a bad reputation undeservedly. Some (trans fats) really should be completely eliminated, but unsaturated ones should not be removed from the diet. True, and here it is necessary to remember the measure.

Signs of shortage

Everything must be in balance. Lack of fat leads to its own problems.

Dry skin

The top layer of the skin began to peel off and itches – it’s time to replenish the sebaceous glands, the function of which is to naturally moisturize the epidermis. Avocados, nuts, olive oil will help to fix the problem.

Irritability and depression

Lack of lipids affects the mental state of a person. Increased cases of blues or vice versa anger, noticed incomprehensible mood swings? It is time to introduce sea fish and flaxseeds into the diet. The beneficial fats contained in them will make you calmer and kinder.

Fast fatiguability

It’s only lunch now, and the energy has already dried up? No energy at all? Most likely, the reason lies in the lack of fats, which are the main source of energy. Get rid of drowsiness and fatigue will help 20 grams of coconut oil drunk for breakfast with coffee.

Does not leave the feeling of hunger

Have you eaten recently and your stomach is already rumbling? A clear sign of “degreasing” of the body. A little good fat is enough to satisfy your hunger. A piece of avocado, some walnuts or a slice of fish will not affect the figure, but the body will be grateful for the recharge.

Freeze even in the heat?

One of the functions of subcutaneous fat is to maintain a stable body temperature. For this reason, skinny people freeze more often and more than obese people. In conditions of a sharp decrease in air temperature (we left the house in the cold), the cells of adipose tissue throw out a portion of warming heat for the whole body. Of course, you should not build up the sides and stomach – a small subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue is enough to warm the body.

Scattering

Fatty acids, in particular Omega-3, play an indispensable role for the normal functioning of the brain. Lipid deficiency leads to deterioration of brain activity. People with a lack of fat find it difficult to gather their thoughts, hold their attention, and concentrate on important things. It will help to improve the condition of food rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

Is the weight in place?

This, of course, sounds paradoxical, but in fact it is. People who are on a low-fat diet, it is difficult to get rid of excess. The fact is that according to nature, when the body does not receive fats, it begins to draw energy from other sources – proteins and carbohydrates. He takes strength from what he gets regularly and what he does not need to stock up on. Subcutaneous fats are kept as “NZ”, being afraid to spend the substance, the spent reserves of which have not yet been replenished.

Vision deteriorated

Sharp vision impairment is often a signal of fat deficiency. A lack of Omega-3 acid leads to glaucoma and an increase in eye pressure. Consumption of trans fat also has a negative effect on the eyes – up to complete loss of vision.

Joint pain

Help prevent the development of arthritis in conjunction with other factors under the power of fatty foods. But for this it is important to choose the “right” fats. Salmon fillets, herring or sardines, olive oil and walnuts are a source of beneficial lipids. But you shouldn’t get too carried away with them either – remember that this is an extremely high-calorie food.

High cholesterol

The level of “bad” cholesterol directly depends on the indicators of “good”: the more the first, the less the second. You can increase the supply of “healthy” cholesterol by eating sea fish once a week. Simply put, to increase the “good” cholesterol, it is necessary to use “good” fats.

Tired of crowded places?

It also serves as a signal of a potential fat deficiency. Fatigue from being in stadiums or noisy parties is due to sensory disturbances in the body. To debug the level of noise perception will help products containing Omega-3.

Avitaminosis

Refusal of fatty foods is always beriberi A, D, E and K. These vitamins are fat-soluble substances. That is, in order for the body to be able to absorb them, it needs fats. A great way to restore vitamin balance is to introduce oil into the diet. Preferably coconut, despite the fact that it belongs to the saturated fats. This is the best option for activating fat-soluble vitamins.

What should be the percentage of lipids in the body

In the human body 2 types of fat deposits are represented. This is actually the subcutaneous layer (visible) and the so-called visceral (around the internal organs). Calculating the percentage of fat in the body, take into account both types of adipose tissue. But internal reserves are more active in terms of metabolism than the greasy layer under the skin. Therefore, at the initial stage of the diet, weight loss starts from the inside – first the fat leaves the abdominal cavity, and only after it the external centimeters. Hence the calculation: with a decrease in total body weight within 5-10%, the fat content in the abdominal cavity is reduced by 10-30%.

For women, the normal percentage of lipids on 5-8 points is higher than that of men, and ranges in the 20-25% range. But these are only average indicators that differ for different age categories.

If for male bodybuilders, reducing the “fat” percentage to a minimum almost does not pose a health hazard, then the female body can react quite sharply to “drying” – up to serious hormonal disorders.

The optimal percentage of fat for women
AgeFine(%)Average(%)Above the norm (%)
18-25 years22-2525-29,529,6
25-30 years22-25,525,5-29,729,8
30-35 years22,5-26,326,4 – 30,530,6
35-40 years24-27,527,6-30,530,6
40-45 years25,5-29,229,3-32,632,7
45-50 years27,5-30,830,9-3434,
50-60 years29,7-32,933-36,136,2
Older than 60 years30,7-3434-37,337,4
The optimal percentage of fat for men
AgeNormal(%)Average(%)Above the norm (%)
18-25 years15-18,9%19-23,323,4
25-30 years16,5-20,120,2-24,224,3
30-35 years18-21,521,5-25,225,3
35-40 years19,2-22,522,6-25,926
40-45 years20,5-23,423,5-26,927
45-50 years21,5-24,524,6-27,527,6
50-60 years22,7-2626,1-29,129,2
60 years and older23,2-26,226,3-29,129,2

As for men, the presence of 15-20% body fat allows them to look fit. Six “packs” of the press become visible at an indicator of 10-12%, and 7% or less is the appearance of bodybuilders during the competition.

You can calculate the percentage of fat in the body using a special device by measuring the thickness of the folds on the body. This method is actively used by people professionally involved in bodybuilding. A simpler option is conventional electronic scales. In most models, it is possible to calculate the content of fat mass in the body.

Products to reduce body fat

So, through simple measurements, it became clear: there is a little more fat in the body than necessary. You can get rid of excess if you adjust your diet and physical activity. But, in addition, there are many products from which the sebaceous layer melts even faster. Nutritionists call them fat burners and divide them into two groups: liquids and solids.

Liquid Fat Burners

  1. Water. Effectively speeds up metabolism if you drink a glass of water 20 minutes before breakfast. During the day, it is important to drink from one and a half to 2 liters of pure non-carbonated water.
  2. Green tea. Natural fat burner that speeds up metabolism.
  3. Coffee. A cup of this drink, drunk before a sports workout, will increase body temperature and speed up the burning of fat cells. This option, for obvious reasons, is not suitable for hypertensive patients.
  4. barley water. Destroys subcutaneous fat cells, removes toxins from the body.
  5. Lemon water. Helps the body to get rid of excess weight, improves immunity, reduces appetite.
  6. Freshies. Freshly squeezed juices contain many vitamins. And they play an important role in the process of healing and cleansing the body of all that is superfluous.
  7. Red wine. Not everyone accepts the effectiveness of such a fat burner, but some nutritionists claim that a glass of wine before dinner significantly reduces appetite. The main thing is that the adoption of alcohol does not turn into a bad habit.

Solid Fat Burners

  1. Kashi. Cleanse the body of toxins. The most effective in the fight against body fat are oatmeal and buckwheat.
  2. Vegetables. Asparagus and cabbage remove excess fluid from the body, prevent fat deposition and the formation of edema, and regulate metabolism. Amazing effect in the breakdown of fat has ginger.
  3. Protein products. Natural fat burners among protein foods are egg whites, fish, and lean meats. They also contribute to a faster build-up of muscle mass instead of body fat.
  4. Fruits, berries. Vitamin-rich grapefruits (like other citrus fruits) are one of the best fat burners. Kiwis and apples are good for weight loss – they normalize bowel function. Pineapple contains the substance bromelain, which dissolves fats. There is an enzyme that breaks down fat molecules in raspberries and raisins.
  5. Dairy. Kefir, natural yogurt and cottage cheese destroy fatty tissues.
  6. Spices. Spicy spices stimulate an increase in body temperature and sweating, which leads to the breakdown of subcutaneous fat.

From the listed products, it is easy to make a fat-burning diet menu. The most popular dishes of food programs aimed at reducing the percentage of fat are the Sassi drink, the so-called Bonn soup and fruit and spicy cocktails. All these dishes are easy to prepare yourself at home.

Drink Sassi frees the body from excess fluid and speeds up metabolism. It consists of 2 liters of water, a teaspoon of crushed ginger, 1 sliced ​​cucumber, slices of one lemon and a few mint leaves.

For the Bonn soup you need 1 cabbage, 2 of sweet peppers, celery root and stalks, a few tomatoes. If desired, the soup can be supplemented with other ingredients that can break down fatty molecules.

For cocktails against excess fat, it is better to choose a combination of lemon and mint, grapefruit and pineapple, celery and apples, ginger and spicy spices.

However, the list of products is quite extensive, so there is something to experiment with.

Burn excess fats will help … fats

Of course, this does not sound very logical, but some scientists keep repeating this. In their opinion, it is enough to reduce the proportion of carbohydrate intake and slightly increase the daily portion of fat (of course, trans fats are not included in this category), and the process of weight loss will begin, and the level of “good” cholesterol will go up. At the same time, scientists insist: the amount of fat consumed should be increased due to red meat, sea fish, olive oil and nuts. Chicken dishes, a little pork, avocado, tofu, rapeseed oil are also welcome. This approach is reminiscent of the Mediterranean diet.

When engaging in the fight against excess fat, the ratio of consumed and burned calories is primarily important. “Useful” fats – this, of course, is good, but charging has also not been canceled.

Perhaps such a program for burning subcutaneous fat has the right to exist, and it is possible that it really helps many. Be that as it may, for anyone you will have to give up sweets, pies and buns, and the foods allowed by the diet, although they are included in the list rich in fats, are very useful. In small portions and they become dietary. After all, for weight loss it is important not to give up products, but to change the approach to nutrition.

Healthy fats for weight loss should be found in such products:

  • meat;
  • nuts;
  • olive oil;
  • cheese;
  • avocado;
  • bitter chocolate;
  • fat.

Regarding the last product, we note: despite the fact that lard is the champion in terms of fat content, it still contributes to weight loss, since it consists of unsaturated lipids. Once in the body, they destroy saturated fats. In addition, according to some sources, lard strengthens the immune system, serves as a prevention of oncology, heart and vascular diseases.

Amazing facts

The fact that fats are extremely necessary for the body to complete work and normal well-being is already clear. But the lipids in the human body are allotted some more interesting functions, which many did not even guess.

  1. For the brain. The brain, according to biologists, is almost 60% fat. The fatty “casing” envelops each fiber of the nervous tissue, which contributes to a faster transmission of impulses. A low-fat diet actually deprives the brain of the “building blocks” it needs to function. The brain needs omega-3 fatty acids to function properly.
  2. For lungs. Their outer shell is almost entirely composed of fats. In premature babies, the lungs are devoid of a protective fatty layer, so these babies need outside help. Some scientists track the link between insufficient fat intake and the development of asthma.
  3. For immunity. Deficiency of lipids found in butter and coconut oil, according to some scientists, leads to the fact that leukocytes (white blood cells) lose their ability to recognize and destroy viruses, fungi and bacteria.
  4. For skin. Phospholipids are the main component of the cell membrane. Without the required amount of fat, cells are destroyed, which means that the structure of tissues and organs is disrupted. This also applies to the skin – the largest organ in the human body. Dry and chapped skin is an open door for infections.
  5. For heart. Saturated fats in adequate amounts are also beneficial. At least, this is what scientists who examined the inhabitants of the Pacific Islands say. Tribes whose diet includes coconut oil have virtually no cardiovascular problems.
  6. For hormones. Fats are structural components of hormones that regulate many body functions, including reproductive. Therefore, it is so important to avoid low-calorie diets in the diet of adolescent girls during the maturation period, since a deficiency of substances can adversely affect the development and functioning of the genital organs.

Many people unfairly classify lipids as “bad” foods and flatly refuse to eat fatty foods. And they don’t even know what harm they bring to their body. But it is worth taking a closer look at these substances to understand: they are necessary for the body, and the cause of excess weight lies not in oils and sea fish, but in the wrong view of the principles of nutrition.

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